兰州大学机构库 >草地农业科技学院
中国城乡居民食物消费碳排放研究
Alternative TitleA preliminary analysis of food carbon emission in China
高晶
Thesis Advisor唐增
2018-04-01
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword食物消费 碳排放 生命周期评价 LMDI模型 EKC模型
Abstract

随着全球气候变暖,各国不断尝试各种低碳经济的可持续发展模式,消费作为制约经济发展的一大要素,已引起越来越多人的关注。食物消费作为人类消费的重要组成部分,特别是由食物消费引起的碳排放逐渐成为了各部门关注的焦点。近年来,我国居民的生活质量不断提高,食物消费结构和方式随之发生变化,对碳排放造成了一定影响,使环境负担不断加大,严重威胁着我国的社会发展。
本研究计算了我国居民消费的11类主要食物对应的直接和间接碳排放量,并对城乡居民食物消费碳排放进行了对比,利用LMDI分解方法,定量计算了人口数量、食物消费结构和碳排放强度对居民食物碳排放总量的贡献值,并借助环境库兹涅茨曲线(EKC)进一步分析了我国GDP变化对碳排放强度较大的畜产品碳排放量的影响。主要结果如下:
(1)城镇居民人均食物消费产生的直接碳排放呈波动性增长,2014年较2000年增长了28%;对于农村居民而言,在2012年之前,食物消费总量随粮食消费量的下降而下降,使得食物直接碳排放量下降,之后随着动物性食物消费量的持续增加,直接碳排放不断升高。
(2)城乡居民食物消费间接碳排放均呈上升趋势。从食物生命周期各阶段看,食物在生产阶段产生的碳排放最少且增长较为缓慢;运输阶段碳排放增长最为迅速,且在2008年后碳排放显著高于生产及消费阶段。
(3)总体而言,城乡居民人均食物消费产生的碳排放量均呈增长趋势,2014年较2000年,碳排放涨幅分别达43.1%和15.2%,农村显著低于城镇,同时城乡居民人均食物消费碳排放差距也在不断拉大,两者的比例由2000年的1.05:1,变为2014年的1.3:1,且仍有继续变大的趋势。
(4)利用LMDI模型计算人口数量、食物消费结构、碳排放强度三因素对食物消费碳排放的贡献值,结果表明:就全国而言,食物消费结构和碳排放强度的变化对食物碳排放量的影响显著高于人口数量因素的影响,贡献值达到人口数量贡献值的3倍;对城乡居民来说,影响食物碳排放总量最重要的因素则为人口数量。
(5)借助EKC模型探究GDP对畜产品碳排放的影响发现,畜产品碳排放量随着我国人均GDP的增长持续增加,并未表现出降低或放缓趋势。
针对我国居民食物消费碳排放情况,本研究提出以下减少食物消费碳排放的对策和建议:(1)均衡饮食、倡导健康消费,提高居民健康饮食意识,在保证营养均衡的基础上多食蔬菜、水果,合理补充奶类,适量消费畜产品;(2)在农业生产过程中合理使用农药化肥。立足我国国情,严格按照“增产、经济以及环保施肥”的要求,遵循“精、调、改、替”方针,逐步改正化肥使用不合理现象;(3)加强牲畜生产阶段管理,实现畜产品减排。具体可通过培育畜产品优良品种、优化饲料及膳食添加剂来提高畜禽产品性能,进一步提高畜禽产肉量及出栏率;(4)提高运输仓储效率,积极开发和使用新型节能运输能源,另外还可通过规划最佳运输路径、优化车辆配送方案等方式来减少运输阶段能源消耗及碳排放;(5)优化全民生活能源消费结构,积极倡导低碳生活,提高居民能耗意识,鼓励居民使用沼气、风能、太阳能等清洁能源作为主要炊事能源。

Other Abstract

With the global warming, all countries of the world are continually trying to implement various sustainable development models of low-carbon economies. Consumption, as a major factor that restricts economic development, is bound to attract more and more attention, especially carbon emissions caused by food consumption, has gradually become the focus of various departments. In recent years, with resident living quality improving, the structure of food consumption has changed, which results in carbon emissions increasing and environmental burdens, also became a serious threat to China's sustainable development.
In this paper, the direct and indirect carbon emission of 11 kinds of food were calculated and compared, in addition, using the LMDI decomposition method quantitatively calculated the contribution values of population, food consumption structure, and carbon intensity to the total amount of food carbon emissions, and further analysis the impact of China's GDP changes on carbon emission from livestock products with the EKC.The results are as follows:
(1) The direct carbon emissions from per capita food consumption of urban residents showed a fluctuating increase. The emission in 2014 was increased by 28% compared to 2000. For rural residents, before 2012, the direct carbon emissions is decline with the food consumption declined, Afterwards, as the consumption of animal foods continues to increase, direct carbon emissions continue to rise.
(2) The indirect carbon emissions of urban and rural residents' food consumption were on the rise. From the various stages of the food life cycle, food produces the minimum carbon emission and the grows more slowly in the production phase. carbon emissions in the transport phase increased most rapidly and were significantly higher than the production and consumption phases after 2008.
(3) Overall, the carbon emissions from urban and rural residents per capita food consumption are increased. 2014 increased by 43.1% and 15.2% respectively compared to 2000. Rural areas were significantly lower than urban , and the gap are constantly widening, the ratio changed from 1.05:1 in 2000 to 1.3:1 in 2014, and it continues to grow.
(4) The LMDI model was used to calculate the contribution of the population, food consumption structure, and carbon emission intensity to the carbon emissions from food consumption. The results show that: In the whole country, food consumption structure and carbon intensity have a significantly higher impact on food carbon emissions than population, and the contribution value reaches three times than population. For urban and rural residents, the most important factor is the population.
(5) Using the EKC model to explore the impact of GDP on carbon emissions from livestock products, it was found that the carbon emissions have increased with the growth of per capita GDP, and did not show a trend of decrease or slowdown.
In response to the situation of carbon emissions from food consumption in China, the following countermeasures and suggestions to reduce carbon emissions are proposed: (1) Have a balanced diet and advocate healthy consumption. and raise residents' awareness of healthy diet, encourage residents to eat more vegetables and fruits, reasonably supplement milk, and moderately reduce meat consumption to ensure balanced nutrition. (2) Rational use of pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural production. we must base on China's National Conditions to strict accordance with the requirements of “increasing production, economy, and environmental protection fertilization”, and the principle of “fineness, adjustment, reform, and replacement” to gradually correct the unreasonable use of chemical fertilizers. (3) Strengthen the management of livestock production stages and achieve reduction of livestock products. By improving the quality of livestock products, optimizing feed and dietary additives, to improve livestock product performance and further increase the meat production and slaughter rate of livestock and poultry. (4) Improve energy efficiency and actively develop and use energy-efficient transportation energy. In addition, through optimization of transportation routes and vehicle distribution solutions to reduce carbon emissions during the transportation phase. (5) optimize the energy consumption structure and actively promote low-carbon life, increase residents' awareness of energy consumption, and encourage residents to use clean energy such as biogas, wind power, and solar energy as their main energy sources.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/199113
Collection草地农业科技学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
高晶. 中国城乡居民食物消费碳排放研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2018.
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