兰州大学机构库 >地质科学与矿产资源学院
滇西上新世柚木化石及其虫食迹研究
Alternative TitleThe leaf fossil of Tectona (Verbenaceae) from the Pliocene of western Yunnan, China and its research of Insect herbivory
王天姿
Thesis Advisor闫德飞
2016-05-31
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword云南柚木 角质层 虫食迹 上新世 云南
Abstract中国云南省西部的腾冲县位于青藏高原的东南部,它的植被类型属于季节性干湿交替常绿阔叶林带,该地区的植被种类十分丰富。同时研究区新近系比较发育,其中在上新统芒棒组上段的硅藻土页岩中采集到柚木属(Tectona)叶片压型化石,在与该属的三个现生种—柚木(Tectona grandis)、汉密尔顿柚木(Tectona hamiltoniana)和菲律宾柚木(Tectona philippinensis)现生种宏观特征和柚木(Tectona grandis)表皮微细构造详细比较的基础上,经过室内鉴定分析将当前化石命名为一新种—云南柚木(Tectona yunnanensis sp. nov.),并在叶片的部分区域发现了虫食的情况。 当前化石标本的主要特性表现为叶片为大型叶,呈倒卵形,全缘,主脉较粗,叶脉呈现羽状脉,5条二级脉清晰可见,化石标本的角质层较薄,气孔器属于下生型,表皮长有毛基,叶片的近轴面的表皮细胞为不太规整的多边形,靠近叶片的远轴面的表皮细胞形状是没有规律的,气孔器的形状属于长椭圆形,副卫细胞为两个,且它的边缘出现了较明显的加厚现象。 在扫描电镜和EDS能谱仪下对化石和现生标本的虫食迹做了分析对比,结果表明化石叶片的虫食迹具残留叶脉无叶肉特征,这与现生柚木(Tectona grandis)叶片中受柚木野螟或者柚木螟蛾伤害所致的特征类似。这也间接证明在上新世时期柚木野螟或者柚木螟蛾可能已经在腾冲地区生存。为研究云南西部地区该时期动植物的协同演化作用提供了重要的信息。 该属化石新种的首次发现将柚木属可靠的化石历史延伸到了上新世,证明了中国西南地区对于该属演化历史的重要性,补充了柚木属(Tectona)不仅起源于东南亚的一些国家,还囊括了属于南亚的中国。另外,世界范围内第一次发现柚木属叶片化石也证明了我国滇西地区上新世有其化石记录存在,我国也可能为柚木的原产国。
Other AbstractTectona is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the Verbenaceae. The three species Tectona grandis, Tectona hamiltoniana and Tectona philippinensis are native to southern and southeastern Asia. No Tectona fossil leaf record has been reported thus far. Here, we describe a fossil leaf of Tectona yunnanensis sp. nov. , collected from the Pliocene Mangbang Formation in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China as a new species, and its research of insect herbivory. The fossil’s morphological characteristics and anatomical characteristics were investigated by macro-observation and cuticular analysis, and were compared with its three extant species. The fossil is obovateshaped with entire margin. Its primary vein is pinnate, and five secondary veins are clearly visible. The secondary veins show dichotomous branches, and their exterior tertiary veins are looped. The cuticles of the fossil are hypostomatic, and the trichome bases are of the single-ring actinocytic type. The adaxial epidermal cells show no decoration and are rectangular in shape, and the fossil stomata are elongated-elliptic and haplocheilic. Comparison of fossil and extant species’s herbivory traces was taken under SEM and EDS. The results showed that the characteristics of herbivory trace were lack of mesophyll but all veins were residual. This feature is similar to the insect damage of Pyransta machaeralis Walker or Pyralidae. It also indirectly proved that the Tengchong has survived Pyransta machaeralis Walker and Pyralidae during the Pliocene. It provided important information for the study of the co evolution of plants and animals in the western of Yunnan. The discovery of T. yunnanensis sp. nov. extends the reliable fossil record of Tectona to the Pliocene, demonstrates the importance of the evolutionary history of this genus in southwest China, and supports the theory that Tectona originated from eastern and southeast Asia.
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/200587
Collection地质科学与矿产资源学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王天姿. 滇西上新世柚木化石及其虫食迹研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2016.
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