兰州大学机构库 >法学院
再论限塑令——环境外部性法律规制的失衡及对策
Alternative TitleDeep Research on the Ban for Free Plastic Bags:The Unbalance of Environment External Legal Regulation and its Resolutions
李雪峰
Thesis Advisor俞树毅
2011-05-10
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword限塑令 环境外部性 法律规制失衡 对策
Abstract颁布于2007年12月31日的《关于限制生产销售使用塑料购物袋的通知》(简称为“限塑令”)已实施两年有余。从经济分析法学角度看,使用塑料购物袋所导致的环境污染本质上是一种典型的负外部性问题,而“限塑令”是政府通过行政强制手段对此种环境负外部性的规制。虽然诸多调研数据显示“限塑令”取得了一定效果,但其实施还存在着很多的问题,甚至会引发新的环境负外部性问题。本文运用经济分析法学和实证分析法学的研究进路,通过历史文献和比较方法,以“环境外部性”为理论工具,以实地调研数据和“限塑令”实施效果为实证基础,从理论和实际两方面对“限塑令”、环境外部性理论和政府法律规制失衡所导致的环境外部性影响进行分析,提出完善“限塑令”的对策,并强调应该综合运用法律规制手段平衡解决环境问题。 论文共分五个部分: 第一部分是对“限塑令”相关内容的解析。首先对《关于限制生产销售使用塑料购物袋的通知》(简称为“限塑令”)、《商品零售场所塑料购物袋有偿使用管理办法》及后续出台的相关几个国家标准给予了法律上的定位;然后对限塑令进行解构,从生态技术、产业经济、制度构建、行政执法及消费观念等角度分析了“限塑令”相关内容的可行性。 第二部分是“限塑令”实施的效果和影响。论文对部分超市和农贸批发市场“限塑令”实施前后塑料购物袋消耗情况进行了实地调研和分析。在此基础上,从政府、生产者、商家、消费者四个层面对“限塑令”实际的实施效果和影响进行了评价。 第三部分是对“限塑令”环境外部性法律规制失衡原因的深层分析。依托外部性理论,论文阐述了外部性的涵义、环境外部性的产生原因及解决环境负外部性问题的对策,描述了当前“限塑令”外部性的诸多表现,并深入剖析了其成因。 第四部分是对世界各国的主要“限塑”模式的介绍及简要评价。当今世界各国“限塑”模式主要有禁止或限制使用、征收税费调控、回收再利用和使用环保产品替代等四种模式。通过对各种模式的评价旨在给我国“限塑令”的完善提供借鉴。 第五部分提出了完善我国“限塑令”法律规制手段的一些主要对策。包括法律规制手段的多样化;约束与激励机制的并行,环保责任的合理分担;完整产业链的构建,“法益”冲突的综合平衡等等。 论文的结语部分,从展望的角度,对未来“限塑”相关的法律规制体系构建作了一番设想,对本课题有待进一步研究的问题进行了补充说明。 总之,本课题的研究初衷在于如何运用环境外部性的理论对诸如“限塑令”等环境外部性法律规制手段进行分析,从而促进我国环境外部性规制手段的进步,为我国环境外部性内化的对策提供有价值的建议。
Other AbstractThe Notice on the Restriction of Manufacturing, Sale and Use of Plastic Shopping Bags (referred to as The Ban on Free Plastic Bags), which was promulgated on December 31st, 2007, has been enforcemented for more than two years. The pollution of plastic bags is a tipical negative external matter in a view of economic analysis jurisprudence methodology. The Ban on Free Plastic Bags is the government’s legal regulation by means of administrative compelling force. Although many research data shows that the Ban has made a certain success, the execution of The Ban is in a fix now. There are many problems in its enforcement and these may initiate some new environment negative external problems. From economic analysis and empirically positive jurisprudence methodologies and a perspective of context analysis, the thesis analyses The Ban on Free Plastic Bags, environment external theory, the influnce made by the unbalance of environment external legal regulation and advances the measures to improvc The Ban. The thesis also emphasizes that we should integrate legal, administrative and economic methods to solve envionment problems. The thesis consists of five parts: In the first part, the thesis analyses some relevant matters of The Ban on Free Plastic Bags, such as the legal status of these relevent regulations, the feasibility of the ban.In the second part, the thesis analyses the effects and the influnce of The Ban. On the base of the research data of the plastic bags consumpted around The Ban in some markets, the thesis evaluates the effects of The Ban’s enforcement and its influnce to the government, producers, merchants, consumers.In the third part, the thesis states the external theory, then it analyses the reasons of The Ban’s unbalance of environment external regulation.In the forth part, the thesis introduces and comments the models of “plastic limit” in others countries in order to make use of the successful experiences of other countries.In the fifth part, the thesis puts forward some measures to perfect The Ban in its enforcement.In the final conclusion, the thesis points out some matters needed to be further studied. The original intention of the thesis is how to use external theory to analyse legal regulation method, such as The Ban on Free Plastic Bags, so as to promote the means of legal regulations and try to afford some useful advice. Keywords: The Ban on Free Plastic Bags,environment external theory,the unbalance of legal regulation,res...
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/201907
Collection法学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李雪峰. 再论限塑令——环境外部性法律规制的失衡及对策[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2011.
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