兰州大学机构库 >文学院
民国时期的甘肃流徙文学研究
Alternative TitleA Study on the Exile Literature of Gansu Province during the Republican Period of China.
贾东方
Thesis Advisor程金城
2018-02-10
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword民国甘肃 流徙作家 生命历程 文化传播 精神内涵
Abstract

民国时期的甘肃文学图景,由于地域的边缘性、材料的稀缺性而一直处于模糊不清的状态,也因之很难了解现代文化、现代文学是如何进入并影响这一地域的文化、文学形态。民国时期的甘肃现代文学,虽然在时间上比其他地区稍微迟滞一些,但无论是文化蕴藉还是精神内涵方面,仍经历了现代文学发展中的相关进程。论文在原始报刊文献材料的梳理基础上,以晚清民国时期的甘肃现代文化、现代文学发展脉络为研究对象,探讨在不同时期、不同角度、不同知识群体中的多元形态,并且从晚清民国易代之际、“五四”新文化运动前后、30年代“开发西北风潮”时期及40年代“抗日战争”时期、后期转折阶段等历时性的考察角度,进行了宏观的比较研究。在从近代文学形态到现代文学形态转变过程中,民国时期的甘肃文学一直也在通过现代报刊的文化传播、文学社团的聚合、文学运动的开展、文艺思潮的争鸣等方式悄然地发生着变化。论文揭示出了与民国甘肃文学发展息息相关的甘肃旅外学子、西北考察家、流徙知识分子等群体,并通过对他们的文学创作及文学活动的分析阐释,大致勾勒描绘出民国甘肃文学发展过程中的独特面貌。

在民国时期甘肃文学的发展变化过程中,特别是抗战爆发以来的“流徙知识群体”,对整个甘肃、西北乃至全国现代文学格局的影响都极为深远。就时效性影响而言,这些“流徙知识分子群体”本身就与全国的文艺组织及外地的文化人、文化刊物来往密切,在西北地区自发地聚合成文学群落以后,其本来具有的文化优势,也给予以理学为基础的甘肃传统文化造成了强烈冲击。流徙至甘肃地区的作家,在“文章下乡”、“文艺大众化”、“文艺通俗化”、“街头诗、朗诵诗运动”等方面进行了专题深入探讨,并通过文学创作、演讲教学、聚会结社、编辑刊物等多种方式,积极推动着甘肃地区文学运动的开展。就大后方文学新的格局来谈,以少数知名作家为中心的“流徙知识分子群体”,也吸引、聚合了一批青年文艺爱好者在他们的周围,并构成了一个非常有活力的40年代西北地区“新生代作家群”。他们或承继了前一时期或同时期的文化精神资源而有所开创,如牛汉之于胡风、艾青、田间及后来的《七月》派作家群,唐祈之于盛澄华、杨晦、陈敬容及同时期的“西北联大——西北大学诗人群”;或秉持自我风格而有所转变,如于赓虞在“恶魔诗人”之后的“诗教理想”及编辑事业,李泊在波德莱尔“唯美——颓废主义”诗学理念之后的“现实主义”文学转向;或受到西北地区的地域面貌、文化风俗所影响,生命体验、思维观感都发生了变化,并进而融合西北的文化元素,开创出具有苍茫色彩、阳刚之美的西北现代文学新形态,如冯振乾之于新边塞诗的开拓,牛汉的“草原书写”与“西部情结”等等。就现代知识分子的文化传播使命与精神演变轨迹而论,民国甘肃的“流徙知识分子群体”,大多数都是在国破家亡、背井离乡中切身体会着家国劫难、悲苦命运,他们往往或多或少都会将文学创作及文学活动与家国命运、民生疾苦紧密地联系在一起,并承担起沉重的历史使命,在荒凉、寂寞的异乡背负着知识分子的文化重建使命,在默默耕耘中去发现民族的韧性精神,在归家无期、生命无着之时也在寻觅着精神的原乡归宿。

当然,民国时期甘肃文学的局限也相当明显。以青年作家为主体的“流徙知识群落”,非常容易受到时代氛围的影响以及民族命运的感召,并进而用如火般炽热的生命与文学,来重塑个体灵魂、民族精神。然而,这种“战斗式的浪漫主义精神”也潜藏着危险,因为这是知识分子把“个体”融入到“民族”的整体之后才获得意义和价值的,很可能在认识到自我的软弱和无力之后,心理上会依附于强有力的“民族英雄”,也可能是选择一个规避痛苦、恐惧的避风港,然而这种规避的代价,正是主体精神、自我意识的丧失。此外,作为大后方的甘肃地带,固然给“流徙知识群体”提供安全的生存空间,使得他们能相对从容地从事文学创作及其他文学活动,然而也会促使一部分人在意识到动荡时局中个人的渺小、无力之后,选择沉溺于暂时安逸的生活,放纵自我、醉生梦死,在精神原乡的寻觅之路上最终沉沦、迷失。

Other Abstract

Literature prospect in Gansu province during the Republican period, due to the marginal region and the scarcity of materials, has been in a fuzzy state. So it is difficult to understand how the modern culture and literature enter and affect this regional culture and literature. Gansu literature during  the Republican period has never been spontaneous, although somewhat sluggish in time than other areas, both cultural implication and spiritual connotation still bear the distinct characteristics of the times and the common, interconnected propositions in the development of modern literature. The thesis is based on  teasing out the original literature materials of newspapers, as well as the modern culture and literature development in Gansu province as the research object in the late Qing dynasty during  the Republican period. It explores the diversifications in different periods, different angles and different community of knowledge and carries on the comparative study from the diachronic angle, which extends from the changing time of late Qing dynasty during  the Republican period of "May Fourth New Culture Movement", to the period of "Development of the Northwest Wind" in the 30s , to the period of “Anti-Japanese War” in 40s and transition stage in the late period. In the transition process from modern literature to contemporary literature, Gansu province literature in  the Republican period quietly shifted through the cultural transmission, aggregation of literary community, literary movement, the contend of  literature trend of the modern newspapers. The thesis reveals the group people of  expats students in Gansu,  northwest explorers and wandering and homeless intellectuals who closely linked with the literary development in Gansu province of the Republican period. Through the analysis and interpretation of their literary creation and literary activities, it roughly describe the unique aspect in the process of literary development in Gansu province.

In the process of the development and changes of Gansu literature, especially the  " wandering and homeless intellectuals community " since the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, has profound influence on the whole Gansu province, northwest and the modern literature pattern. In terms of timeliness effect, the intellectual community itself connects closely with the national art organization, ecdemic cultured man and cultural publication. They spontaneously aggregated into literary community in the north-west, which originally has cultural advantage, will necessarily give strongly impact on native literature of Gansu province on the basis of the traditional culture and the expression of personal feelings. The writer who expats Gansu area has deeply carried on the topics of  "the article to the countryside", "popularization of literature and art" and " recite poems on street, poetry movement", and actively promote the development of the literary movement through a variety of ways of the literature creation, the lecture teaching, gathering and association and edit.

In the terms of new pattern of literature, there are a few famous writers as the center of the intellectual community attract and aggregate a group of youth literature and art lovers around them, and constitute a very energetic "new generation writers" in 40s in the northwest. They inherited and created the resources of cultural spirit of previous period or the same time, such as Nv Han , Hu Feng, Ai Qing and the "July" group writers; Tang Qi, Sheng Chenghua, Yang Hui, Chen Jingrong and at the same time of " Northwest Union University-- poets group in the northwest "; Or uphold the ego style then change, such as Yu Gengyu’s " Poetry ideal" after the "Devil poet " and editing career; Li Bo’s literary turn of "realism" after the Baudelaire's aesthetic-decadentism poetics idea; Or by the influence of northwest regional landscape, culture and custom, their life experience and thought impressions are changed, and further integrated the northwest culture elements and initiated northwest new form of modern literature of boundless color and masculinity, such as Feng Zhengan explores the new frontier poems, and Nv Han’s "prairie writing" and " western emotion" and so on.

From the perspective of culture dissemination of modern intellectual and spiritual evolution, Gansu “intellectual community” in Republican most of whom experienced  the fate of calamity and bitterness of our nation in the condition of the country is defeated and the home lost and people in exile. they tend to be more or less to closely relate literary creation and literary activities with the countries fate and people's livelihood sufferings , and undertake the heavy historical mission. They bear the culture reconstruction mission of intellectuals in the desolate, lonely strange land, to discover the toughness of the national spirit in the silent cultivation, at the time of the unspecified time of going home is looking for the native home of the spirit.

Certainly, the limitations of Gansu literature is quite obvious during the Republican period. The young writers in " intellectual community in exile " is easily affected by the times atmosphere and national fate, and then use life and literature which as hot as fire, to reshape the individual soul and the national spirit. However, the "battle of the romantic spirit" is potentially dangerous, because the intellectuals get the meaning and value after infusing "individual" into the "whole nation”. It is probably the psychology will be attached to the powerful "national hero" after realizing the weakness and powerlessness of self. It may also choose a safe haven to avoid pain and fear, however, the price of avoiding is the loss of consciousness of spirit and self. In addition, Gansu not only provides a safe living space for " intellectual community in exile" to make them to be relatively leisurely in the literary creation and other literary activities, while but also leads to some people realize the individual small and weak, and choose to indulge in a life of ease, temporarily self-indulgence and dream life. Then they fall into the ultimate destruction and lost in the search of the road of spirit.

The whole thesis is divided into three parts, which is constituted of the introduction, the main body and the conclusion. The introduction is the interpretation  of the selected object –Gansu literature in Republican period and “Literati in Exile”. "Republic of China" is not only a concept of time, but also associated with the development and change of Gansu literature in this period of time by relying on the "original" historical context of politics, society and life. " Literati in Exile " mainly refers to the intellectuals who exerts important influence on Gansu literary in the Republican period. They tramp here in exile because of a variety of reasons, such as the war and work and so on. The literary creation, speech, gathering, contended schools of thought and other literary activities are very active, which form the new pattern of the literary world. In addition, the thesis teases out the research status about this topic is based on the existing research materials in academia. Finally the thesis accounts for the significance, value and logical thought of the selected topic.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/228074
Collection文学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
贾东方. 民国时期的甘肃流徙文学研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2018.
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