兰州大学机构库 >文学院
20 世纪中国散文意境论
Alternative TitleA brief theory of the Artistic conception of Chinese prose In the 20th century
辛晓玲
Thesis Advisor常文昌 ; 赵学勇
2007-05-02
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword意境 散文
Abstract

中国古代的文学理论多将意境与诗、词、 画甚至戏曲相联系,而意境与散文的关系往往被忽略。事实上,真正成功的散文作品,同样离不开意境的营造。20 世纪中国散文就在传统意境的基础上, 创造了一种既灵动、深挚又鲜活、隽永的艺术境界。本文即从五个方面,探讨这一问题。

第一,20世纪中国散文的审美具有明显的传统特质。20 世纪中国散文是最具民族传承性的文学体式。就名称而言,“散文”是一个十分纯粹的“国产”概念。它决不像郁达夫说的那样,是西学东渐的产物。“散文”二字最早见于南宋罗大经的《鹤林玉露》,经由明清两代的流变,在刘半农的《我之文学改良观》、傅斯年的《怎样做白话文》中,“散文”这个概念,最终得以确立。就散文的演变而言,当 20 世纪的诗歌、小说、戏曲彻底打破以前的做法,同时期的散文则从内容、到形式,从技法、到审美,都和传统散文血脉相通。而中国的传统文学向来有着明确的审美标准——那就是意境。意境作为中国文艺创作与文艺批评中一个传统的美学范畴,它是一种主客观水乳交融的艺术境界。物我一体、情景兼融的艺术境界,从某种程度上说既是一种人化的物境,又是一种物化的人格。它是作者对客观世界诗意的勾勒,也是读者对文学作品诗意的解读。意境源自作者与读者灵动的内心世界,是心与心进行交流时独特的精神载体。 20 世纪中国散文在其发展过程中,形成了自己特有的意境体系。
第二, 20 世纪中国散文的发展沉浮,一直未曾偏离过意境这一主线。“五四”以来,以鲁迅为代表的“悲愤”类作家,多关注人与社会的关系,其作品意境偏于“宏壮”;以周作人为代表的“简淡”类作家,多关注人与自身、人与大自然的关系,其作品意境偏于“优美”。“五四”至 1949 年的中国散文,一直在上述两类意境的分合交织中错综穿行。先看“悲愤”类作家作品。 20 年代散文作家通过异常惨烈的散文意境,再现了一个时代的血雨腥风; 30 年代散文意境激荡着铿锵的时代旋律,充溢着昂扬的救亡精神; 40 年代,抗日战争的胜利、解放战争的爆发,进一步调动了人们的政治热情,散文的个体意识终于淹没在群体意识之中。当悲愤变为歌颂, 由鲁迅开创的悲愤一脉散文,正式完成了它的历史使命。再看“简淡”类作家作品。在“五四”落潮的彷徨期,周作人首先将“美文”当作自己的精神寄托和理想家园:他把散文由“载道”的框子中解放出来,他倡导的“闲话体”散文含蓄、朦胧,与中国传统意境所体现的审美精神气息相通;林语堂、梁实秋同样认为文学没有阶级性,他们那些言志小品所蕴含的情感与智慧,为 20 世纪中国散文的意境注入了更强烈的主体意识,融入了更深广的人文关怀;京派作家则远离政治,坚守纯文学阵地,他们吸收古人营造意境的艺术手法,从而让散文拥有了浓郁的诗情……40 年代以后,受时代风潮影响,几乎所有的散文作家均向当时的主流意识形态靠拢。远离政治的散文意境终于和他们的创作者一起,游离了大陆,向港台转移。经过四、五十年代的沉寂, 60 年代被视为中国散文的“复兴”阶段。一批优秀的作家比如杨朔、秦牧、刘白羽等人,就此迎来了他们散文创作的黄金时代。刘白羽以激情、秦牧以知性,丰富着散文意境,杨朔尤其将 40 年代以来的“载道”类散文意境,发展到了极致。可是,杨朔在让自己的散文诗情洋溢的同时,也让自己的散文因过分沉溺于诗境,而部分地失去散文的特质。新时期兴起的“大散文”曾让人耳目一新,它同时引发了有关散文文体的诸多争论。但细读其文本,我们却会发现:情感穿透力、文化穿透力、思想穿透力才是“大散文”生命力的源泉。如果我们从这个角度考察大散文的得失,我们不难发现,大散文的成败,其实与题材无关、与概念无关。有无意境,才是判断其文学性、判断其艺术价值的关键。
第三, 20 世纪中国散文意境拥有鲜明的客体特征。离开了客观的物象,就没有虚实相间、有无相生的艺术境界。叙事作品中的实境,尤其如此。优秀的散文作品往往通过逼真的艺术实象,表现深刻的精神内涵。鲜活饱满的人物形象(人境)、流动变幻的生活情景(事境)、交迭更替的外部环境(物境),是散文中最为常见的意境类型。 它们以浓郁的生活实感和强烈的艺术美感,直接作用于读者的感官和心灵,让读者沉浸其中,回味无穷。
第四, 20 世纪中国散文意境拥有浓厚的主体特征。如果说,情感是散文的驱动力,那么,智慧是散文的头脑和视野。后者只有在前者的促动下,才能转化为散文的骨血。那些情文并茂的散文作品不仅包含了知性与感性,它们还注重从二者的统一当中,生发出特殊的意境。散文意境的感性源自散文的真实与个性。 在散文中,人类情感的本质,表现为情感之真、情感之善。正是个体生命的俯仰低昂,正是悲悯沧桑的人间情怀,才使得散文意境在主客观的水乳交融中,获得了纯美的精神向度。散文意境的感性如此,那么,散文意境的知性, 又凝铸了现代人怎样的感怀?笔者认为,作为现代散文的基本品质,作为中国文学的审美内核,散文的意境首先会被饱满的时代精神,深深地浸泡。另外,生活中那些平凡而琐屑的人、事、物,往往蕴涵了生命的常理。这些常理也许无关乎时代、无关乎宇宙这些宏大的命题,但正是这种对寻常事、平凡物的深切关注,使得 20 世纪中国散文拥有了深远的意境、永恒的魅力。最后,现代散文作家善于通过有限的物象,进入无限的时空,从而对整个人生、历史、宇宙获得一种哲理性的感悟。这种带有哲理性的感悟,是散文知性的最高层面。
第五, 20 世纪中国散文意境与诗歌、小说意境的区别。作为一种兼备了多种文体特征的艺术品类,散文与诗歌、小说的意境,同中有异,各领风骚。不同于诗歌意境对韵律美的追求、以及对夸张和想像的借重,散文意境擅长把握内在的情感节奏, 它在正常状态中表现着感觉和知觉,它用趋于家常的方式传递着朴素真挚、明朗豁达的平民精神。不同于小说意境对客观再现性、对情节曲折性、对虚构与想像的关注,散文意境擅用空灵的语言进行主观的抒写,它以所谓的“神”来统摄看似零散的细节,它以“淡而有味”的艺术境界建构着纯美的精神空间。 20 世纪中国散文意境既是诗歌意境与小说意境之间的一种过渡,同时又拥有自己独立的品质。回顾 20 世纪的散文研究,我们看到,学界关注的焦点基本上集中于散文的本体论、作品论、创作论、鉴赏论,等等。其中人们最感兴趣的,仍是散文的文体。笔者认为,散文研究的核心所在, 其实不仅仅是文体问题,它更是一个审美问题。新世纪中国散文的发展走向, 亦取决于人们对散文审美特质的认识与把握。在这种情况下,对散文意境的探讨,就显得尤其重要。

Other Abstract

Artistic conception in ancient Chinese literature theory was mostly connected with poems, paintings,even dramas,but that with prose works was often neglected However, as a matter of fact,a truly successful prose works cannot leave the producing of artistic conception likewise.On the traditional artistic conception foundation,Chinese prose works in the 20th century created a kind of changeful,really sincere as well as bright and meaningful artistic state.This article is to deal with the thesis in next five aspects.

First,Chinese prose works in the 20th century esthetically has the obvious traditional special characteristic.In the 20th century ,Chinese prose works was a literature writing style which had the most national inheritance.Speaking of the name,"the prose works" is an extremely pure" domestic product".In no way was it,as Yu Dafu had said,a product which was from the western learning penetraing eastward.The words "the prose works" were first seen in Luo Dajing’s "He Lin Yu lu" in the Southern Song Dynasty, by way of changing of the Ming and Qing Dynasties,in "My Literature Improvement View",written by Liu Bannong,"How to Make Vernacular literature" written by Fu Sinian, the concept "prose works" was finally established.As far as the evolution is concerned,in the 20th century,poems,novels and dramas all broke their past procedure thoroughly,but the prose works of the period inherited the tradition,from the content to the form and from the technique to esthetic.Chinese traditional literature always has its explicit esthetic standard - artistic conception,which is a traditional esthetics category in literary and artistic creation and criticism,and is an artistic boundary which is in a perfect harmony subjectively and objectively.The artistic boundary in which matter is the same with person and feeling is mixed together with scene,to some certain degree,is not only a kind of matter boundary with personification but also a kind of personification with matter.It is a poetic comment about literary works from readers as well as a poetic outline of objective world from writers but also.It originates from the innermost changeful feelings world of writers and readers, and is also the unique spiritual carrier from heart to heart. In the wake of its development Chinese prose works in 20th century has formed its unique system of artistic conception t.Second, Chinese prose works in the 20th century has not deviated this leading line of artistic conception in its development.From May 4th on, the writers, named "grief and indignation",taking Lu Xun as representative,paid close attention to the relation of people and society.The artistic conception in their works were inclined to "being great". The writers,named "Simple",taking Zhou Zuoren as representative, concerned about the relation between people and themselves, and people and nature.The artistic conception in their works
were inclined to "being graceful".Chinese prose works from May 4th to 1949 was developing between the separation and unity of artistic conception as said above.First,let’s Look at the works that belong to "grief and indignation".Through extraordinarily dismal artistic conception of prose works the prose writers in 20’s showed a sanguinary times.The artistic conception of prose works in 30’s took up a ringing melody of the times,and was permeated with high saving spirit. With the victory of the war against Japan,and the outburst of the war of liberation in 40’s,the political enthusiasm of people is further,improved and the individual consciousness in prose works was finally submerged in the group ones. While grief and indignation turned into extol,the “grief and indignation” prose works,started by Lu Xun,accomplished their historic mission formally.Look at again the works that were "simple ". In the later period of May 4th,Zhou Zuo ren first regarded “wonderful prose”as spiritual ballast of himself and ideal home.He liberated prose out from the frame of“being loaded with rules”,and proposed implicit and dim "chat style",which was interlinked with appreciation of the beautiful spirit in Chinese tradition artistic conception.Lin Yutang,Liang Shiqiu thought similarly that literature did not have a class character.Emotion and wisdom contained in their short and simple literary works poured more intensive mental consciousness into artistic conception of Chinese prose in the 20 centuries, melted much broader humanity solicitude.The writers in Beijing were far away from politics,defended pure literature position, studied the method in which the ancient people built artistic conception and made poetry in prose works rich……After 40’s because of impact out of times agitation, almost all of prose writers were close to the main current.Finally the prose artistic conception,which was far away from politics, together with their writers,left the continent for Hongkong and Taiwan.Through 40’s and 50’s silence,60’s was a time when prose works revived.A batch of excellent writers,such as Yang Shuo , Qin Mu ,Liu Baiyu and others,met their golden age for prose writing.Liu Baiyu is enriching prose artistic conception with intense emotion,Qin Mu with the intellectuality,while Yang Shuo particularly developed artistic conception that was full of rules to an extreme.However,Yang Shuo made his prose full of poetic quality while his prose works partly lost particularity of prose because of works steeping into poetic boundary. "Big prose " that came into being in the new period let people find everything fresh and new but it initiated a lot of arguments about prose style of writing at the same time. When reading them we can see that emotion force, culture force and thought force are really life-source of "big prose". In fact, when we inspect “big prose” of its success and
failure, we are not difficult to find that big prose’s advantages and disadvantages have nothing to do with subject matter, nor with the concept.It is the key to judge its literature and art features whether there is artistic conception or not.
Third, the artistic conception of Chinese prose works in the 20th century had distinct objective characteristic.If there wasn’t objective phenomenon left ,the art realm with realness and nrealness,emptiness and unemptyness would not exist. Real boundary in narrative is especially so-called. Excellent prose works always show deep spirit connotation through vivid art reality. The lively and full personage (person state) , the changeable and mobile scene (affair state) ,the alternate and exchangeable environment (object state) are common types of artistic conception in prose works. These types with rich life reality and intense and aesthetic feeling affect readers’ sense and heart directly and make readers immerse into them and aftertaste endlessly.
Fourth, the artistic conception of Chinese prose works in 20th century had deep principal characteristic.If emotion is driving force in prose work,wisdom is mind and ken in it.The latter becomes bone and blood of prose only when the former motivates. Those prose works which are beautiful both in sentiments and expressions, have contained intellectuality and perceptual. They send out peculiar artistic conception by
unification in two.The perceptual knowledge of the prose’s artistic conception derives from the reality and the character of the prose. In the prose, the affective essence of the mankind is expressed as emotion of truth and emotion of kindness.It is exactly the lowing and rising of individual life,the feeling both grieved and indignant at the depravity of human society and the suffering of the teeming mass that makes the artistic conception of prose acquire pure spirit in the blending of subjectivity and objectivity.The sensibility of the prose’s artistic conception is in this way,then,what about the wisdom of the prose’s artistic conception? I think, as a basic quality of modern prose and esthetic core of Chinese literature,the prose’s artistic conception was filled with the time spirit at first. Moreover, those ordinary and petty persons,matters, and other things in life usually contained the truth of life.Maybe these conventions were not connected with greater questions such as the times, the cosmos,and so on, but it was exactly this ordinary attention that made the Chinese prose in 20 century get the far-reaching artistic conception,and magic power forever.Lastly,the writers of modern prose were good at getting into infinite time and space by limited things they wrote about.By this way they got their known philosophic knowledge and feeling of the individual,the history,the cosmos and so on.This kind of knowledge and feeling is the tallest level of the wisdom of the prose.
The fifth, the differentiation of artistic conception between the Chinese prose in 20 century and that of poem and novel.As a style that has various literary characteristics of many art categories, artistic conception of the prose, the poem, and the novel have some difference when they get coquettish. They have their own special features. Differing from the poem’s pursuit of exaggeration and imagination,the artistic conception of prose is good at expressing the emotion rhythm of internality; it expresses feeling and consciousness in a normal way; it tends to deliver simple, sincere, clear and open-minded civilian's spirit in a domestic way. Differing from the novel’s attention of objective emersion,plot,figment and imagination,the artistic conception of prose is good at using light and free language to express sth.subjectively,It control details which look loose with so-called" absolute being";it constructs pure spirit space by the art state of "thin but have flavor".The artistic conception of the Chinese prose in the 20th century was a kind of transition from the artistic conception of poem to the artistic conception of novel,and it had independent quality in the meantime.Look back at the research of Chinese prose in the 20th century,we see that the concerning focus of educational circles is basically concentrated in style theory, work theory, creating theory and appreciating theory, etc. Among them, the concerning focus is still the literary style of prose. In my opinion, the core of prose’s researching is not only a problem of literary style, it is also an aesthetic one. The development alignment of Chinese prose in new century is also decided by people’s understanding of the esthetic feature of prose. In this case, It seems to be particularly important to study the artistic conception of prose.

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Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/228809
Collection文学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
辛晓玲. 20 世纪中国散文意境论[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2007.
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