兰州大学机构库 >新闻与传播学院
《独立评论》国内政治议题中的舆论导向研究
Alternative TitleResearch on the guidance about the domestic political public opinion in The Independent Review
李金璇
Thesis Advisor樊亚平
2018-03-10
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword《独立评论》 舆论导向 国内政治 改良主义
Abstract

《独立评论》是民国时期“中间派”的代表刊物,是胡适等自由主义知识分子以言论报国的精神战场。在那个战乱纷飞的年代,《独立评论》同人以其无畏的赤子之心为国家的振兴而奔波呐喊,但最后何以消失于历史长河中,这值得令人思索。本文运用文献分析法和个案研究法,选取了1932年5月22日至1937年7月15日期间,占《独立评论》大部分政论比例的国内政治议题,借用中国共产党新闻工作中提出的“舆论导向”概念,来阐述《独立评论》中国内政治议题所涉及的主要事件及其中主导的意见,并剖析这些主导的意见呈现出矛盾性和复杂性的内在动因,以及这些主导意见的内容特色和社会影响。通过上述研究,可启示当下新闻媒体的舆论引导工作,并使我们更深刻地认识到中国特色社会主义道路实施的科学性和必要性。
本文将《独立评论》关于国内政治的舆论分为了三大类,这三大类分别对应前三章的内容。在这三大类中细分各类事件,从中发掘各类事件中的主导意见。第一章是将《独立评论》国内政治舆论中涉及到较繁杂的国内事务的,分为了一个部分,从中梳理出了独立评论派针对六个国内事务问题主要倡导的意见,分别是:第一,救国的道路是要深刻反思,向“现代化”建设迈进;第二,救济乡村要“无为政治”;第三,统一的手段要渐进改良,反对武力革命;第四,统一的路径是“割据妥协”上建立一个“中心势力”;第五 ,统一的方向是“民主政治”为大方向;第六,中央统一集权首先要秉持“均权”原则。第二章分析了《独立评论》中与国民党和共产党有关的议题,得出了独立评论派拥护却批评国民党,同情而怀疑中国共产党的态度倾向。第三章考察了《独立评论》在抗日问题上的舆论,得出了独立评论派的主要抗日态度分为:对日“妥协”、开始强硬、强硬暧昧、态度强硬这四个阶段。第四章指出了独立评论派上述三类舆论的主导意见,呈现出矛盾性和复杂性并存的特点,以及这个特点背后的内在动因有三个方面:第一,独立评论派所推崇的舆论力量其实对国民政府具有“依附性”;第二,独立评论派的“改良主义探索”与时代潮流相矛盾;第三,独立评论派的世界观是“形而上学”的,因此他们看待事物是孤立、静止、表面的,而且他们只单凭自己对“民主政治”的直觉体验来判断一切事物的对错。第五章从编者理念的角度,分析了《独立评论》国内政治议题中舆论导向的内容特色,有三个方面:第一,“言论自由”的精神——意见的自由市场在《独立评论》国内政治议题的论争中处处体现;第二,与当时的社会总体舆情相比,《独立评论》国内政治议题中的舆论导向,经常呈现出在“低调中唱高调,高调中唱低调”的特点。第三,“实验主义”精神贯穿于《独立评论》进行国内政治舆论导向的编辑与写作中。
第六章考察了《独立评论》国内政治议题的舆论导向之社会影响。从《独立评论》上的文章并结合《编辑后记》,可以了解到《独立评论》国内政治议题的舆论导向所蕴含的“独立精神”深受读者好评;且独立评论派对国内政治进行导向时,不迎合世俗,不作刺激浮夸的言论,在当时言辞激昂成风的舆论界备受热议;最后独立评论派对国内政治的意见主张,受到国民党、中国共产党、日本以及欧洲部分地区的关注,其影响力可谓遍及海内外地区。

Other Abstract

The Independent Review is a representative publication of the "moderate faction" during the period of the Republic of China. It is the spiritual battlefield where Shih Hu and other liberal intellectuals served their country by their remarks. In that era with widespread battles, the majority of contributors of The Independent Review rushed to revive the country with their fearless and earthy hearts. However, it is worth thinking about that the "moderate faction" has disappeared into the long river of history eventually. This article selects the domestic political issues that accounts for the most of the political issues in The Independent Review from May 22, 1932 to July 15, 1937 by the documentary analysis method and the case study method, and borrows the concept of "the guidance of public opinion" which stemmed from the Communist Party’s journalism to describe the main issues and their dominant approaches involved in domestic politics in The Independent Review. Meanwhile, this article also analyzes the internal motivations of these dominant approaches presenting a paradoxical and complicated feature, and the characteristics of content and the social influence about these dominant approaches. On the whole, the above research can alert the work of the guidance of public opinion of the present news media and make us have a more intensive understanding that it is scientific and necessary to implement the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics.The thesis divides the public opinion about the domestic politics in The Independent Review into three categories to discuss the dominant guidance. The three categories correspond to the first three chapters of this thesis. In the first chapter, it is discussed that the sundry domestic affairs among the domestic political public opinions in The Independent Review. We can tease out six main opinions advocated by the comrades of The Independent Review about the aforesaid sundry domestic affairs. Six main opinions refers to: first, the road of saving the temporal country is profound introspection against Chinese deep-rooted bad habits and rapid march toward the direction of “modernization”; second, it is necessary for remedying the countryside to implement “inactivity in governance”; third, the means of national unity should progressively improve rather than militarily revolute; fourth, the path of national unity should establish a "central power" on the compromise of separatist forces; fifth, "democratic politics" should be the direction of national unity; sixth, the centralized mode of central regime must first uphold the principle of "adjustive division of power". The second chapter analyzes the issues related to the Kuomintang and the Communist Party in The Independent Review, and draws an opinion that the critics of Independent Review support but criticize the Kuomintang, and commiserate but doubt the Communist Party from the critics of The Independent Review. The third chapter investigates the opinions of the anti-Japanese issues in The Independence Review, and draws the conclusion that the main anti-Japanese attitudes of the comrades of The Independent Review should be divided into four stages: "compromising", taking a gradual tough stance, presenting a polarization between intransigencia and ambiguity, and advocating a sturdy resistance.
The fourth chapter points out that the above-mentioned three types of the guidance of public opinion in The Independent Review present a feature that complexity and contradictoriness coexist, and the internal motivations behind the feature are three aspects: firstly, the power of public opinion revered by the comrades of The Independent Review is actually dependent on the government. Secondly, the "reformist explorations" of the comrades of The Independent Review are in contradiction with the trend of the times. Thirdly, the worldview of the comrades of The Independent Review is "metaphysical", so they see things as isolated, static and superficial, furthermore, only relying on intuitive experience about “democratic politics” does the comrades of The Independent Review judge things to be right or wrong.
The fifth chapter, from the perspective of the editorial concept, analyzes the characteristics of the content which is proposed by the guidance of the public opinion of the domestic political issues in The Independent Review. There are three aspects: first, the spirit of "freedom of speech"——the free market of opinions is reflected on the controversies over domestic political issues in The Independent Review everywhere. Second, compared with the overall public sentiment of the time, the guidance of the public opinion of the domestic political issues in The Independent Review often presents a state of “advocating drastic criticisms in moderate opinions or advocating moderate opinions in drastic criticisms”. Third, the spirit of "experientialism" runs through the editing and writing of the guidance of the public opinion about domestic politics in The Independent Review.The sixth chapter investigates the social influence of the guidance of the public opinion of domestic political issues in The Independent Review. From the articles and the "Editor's Postscript" in The Independent Review, we can understand the "independent spirit" which is contained in the guidance of the public opinion of domestic political issues in The Independent Review is well received by readers. Moreover, when the comrades of The Independent Review guided the public opinion, their comments was not catering to earthliness and remarking with a exciting and flatulent tone, which were heatedly debated at the time when opinions generally were used with the fiery rhetoric. Finally, the guidance of the public opinion of the comrades of The Independent Review attracted widespread attention in the Kuomintang, the Communist Party of China, Japan, and parts of Europe. Its social influence widely spread at home and abroad.

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Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/231676
Collection新闻与传播学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李金璇. 《独立评论》国内政治议题中的舆论导向研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2018.
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