兰州大学机构库 >草地农业科技学院
草原生态补奖政策对牧户畜牧养殖和草地的影响:内蒙实证研究
Alternative TitleImpacts of the Grassland Ecological Compensation Policy on Household Livestock Production and Grassland Condition: An Empirical Study in Inner Mongolia
胡远宁
Thesis Advisor黄季焜
2019-05-31
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline草学
Keyword草原生态保护补助奖励政策 草地状况 畜牧业生产决策 过度放牧 内蒙 实证研究
Abstract草原不仅是人类赖以生存的自然资源,也是牧区重要的生产资料之一,更是维护国家生态安全和食物安全等方面的重要保障。但近年来,我国可利用草地资源不断萎缩、草地生产力持续下降,草牧业发展面临畜产品需求激增和资源约束趋紧之间的矛盾。为应对草地生态系统严峻的恶化形势,保障数百万牧民的生计,满足城乡居民日渐增长的畜产品需求,中央政府于2011年在全国主要草原省区实施了草原生态保护补助奖励政策。该政策是“十二五”以来保障国家生态安全、提高草牧业生产效率和促进牧民脱贫增收的重要举措。目前,学者们已经针对草原生态保护补助奖励政策的影响开展了一系列研究,但这些研究多围绕政策的生态效益、生计影响、实施方式和牧民受偿意愿等方面展开定性的探讨。现有研究中,基于牧户微观实际调查数据研究该政策对牧民畜牧生产和草地状况的影响的文献甚少,而此类研究正是评估该政策是否实现预期目标和针对该政策提出改进建议所亟需的。作为草牧业生产的主体和草原补奖政策的目标群体,牧民对政策的响应直接决定了政策的实施效果。因此,探究草原补奖政策对牧民的畜牧养殖决策和草地状况的影响,是评估政策有效性的关键,对完善政策具有重要意义。为弥补现有研究的空白,科学定量地评估我国草原生态补奖政策的实施效果,本研究以内蒙古为研究区,试图通过实证分析回答以下两个问题:1)草原生态补奖政策的实施对牧户的牲畜数量有何影响,能否控制草原超载过牧的局面;2)政策对草地生态有什么影响,能否改善草地状况。本研究基于中科院和北京大学中国农业政策研究中心在2015年底通过分层随机抽样所得的牧户调研数据,通过建立计量经济模型,定量、系统地评估了草原补奖政策对牧户的畜牧养殖行为和草地生长状况的影响,进而分析了政策的实施效果。最后,基于研究结论提出相应的政策建议,以期为进一步完善我国草原生态保护补助奖励政策提供依据。本研究主要得出以下10点结论:1)2005–2015年间,样本牧户户均牲畜数量、放牧强度和饲草料用量呈现增长趋势。2)牧民对草地状况的主观判断显示,过去11年研究区大部分地区的草地状况呈现恶化趋势。3)禁牧补助和草畜平衡奖励均未对牧户养殖的牛羊总量及其选择的放牧强度产生显著影响,而政策没有产生预期影响的主要原因在于执行力度不够严格和补贴标准较低。4)草畜平衡奖励能够激励草地经营规模大的牧户减少羊的数量——在控制其他条件不变的情况下,牧户使用的草地面积扩大1%,羊的数量随之减少0.169%。5)草畜平衡奖励对提高牧户的饲草料使用程度有积极影响,能够促使牧户使用的饲草料数量平均增加15.6公斤/羊单位。6)基于牧民对自家经营草场生态变化的感知,发现补奖政策的实施对草地状况没有显著影响。7)市场价格波动和家庭劳动力参与非农就业的程度是影响牧户畜牧生产决策的关键因素。在2005–2015年间,研究区平均羊肉生产者实际价格上涨了179%,说明同期羊的增多主要是由市场价格提高导致的。此外,家庭劳动力参与非农就业程度较高的牧户,养殖的牲畜数量较少,放牧强度也较低。8)牧户的草场经营规模对其放牧强度有显著负影响,草场规模扩大1%,放牧强度随之降低0.533%。9)超载过牧是内蒙古地区草原退化的最主要原因。10)干旱和半干旱区的草地状况能否发生好转主要取决于当年降水的丰歉。根据上述结论,本研究提出如下5点政策建议:1)要加强补奖政策的实施效果,应加大政策的执行力度,保障政策落地,同时适当提高补贴标准。2)鼓励牧区草地流转,扩大牧民草场规模,减缓草畜平衡地区的过牧趋势、提升草畜平衡政策的效果。3)鼓励灌溉条件较好的非牧地区种植饲草,提高人工草地的产量,同时适当增加牧草进口。通过加大牧区以外地区对牧区(特别是禁牧区)的饲草和饲料供给,缓解天然草地压力。4)逐步完善牧区周边城镇的劳动力市场,加快牧区城镇化建设,为牧区创造更多的非农就业机会,提高牧区整体的非农就业水平。5)适当增加牛羊肉进口,同时发展农区草牧业,提高国内牛羊肉供给,抑制国内牛羊肉价格继续上涨而导致的过牧局面。
Other AbstractGrassland is one of the important resources for human survival and pastoral livestock production; it is also an important guarantee for national ecological security and food security. In recent years, the development of pastoral husbandry in China has faced the contradiction between rapid growth in demand for livestock products and the shrinking of available grassland resources. Under the circumstance of severe deterioration of the grassland ecosystem, it is critical to deal with the livelihood needs of millions of herders and the growing demand for livestock products of urban and rural residents effectively. The central government has implemented a large-scale program since 2011, the Grassland Ecological Compensation Policy (GECP), which covered the main pastoral provinces in China and aimed at alleviating grassland degradation and increasing herders' income. The GECP has been an important guarantee for national ecological security, livestock production efficiency and herders' income increasing since the 12th Five-Year Plan. Since the launch of the GECP, the grassland condition has improved in some areas, but the situation of “whole worsen” is still severe. Whether the GECP can effectively motivate herders to reduce grazing intensity determines if it can achieve the expected goals and control grassland degradation. At present, scholars have carried out a series of studies on the impacts of the GECP. Most of these studies are qualitative analyses and mainly focused on the policy's ecological benefits, livelihood impacts, implementation methods and the willingness of herders to accept. There is little literature that try to estimate the impacts of the GECP on pastoralist livestock production and grassland condition by using herders’ field survey data. However, such researches is needed to assess whether the GECP has achieved its expected goals and put forward useful suggestions for improvement. As the main body of pastoral livestock production and the target group of the GECP, herders' responses to the policy directly determines its implementation effect. Therefore, evaluating the impacts of the GECP on herders' livestock raising decision and grassland condition is the key to assess the effectiveness of this policy, and is significant for improving the GECP.In order to make up for the gaps in the existing research and evaluate the impact of the GECP scientifically and quantitatively, this study selected Inner Mongolia as our study area and discussed the following issues: 1) What impact does GECP have on livestock numbers raised by herders? Could it be effective on controlling overgrazing in pastoral areas? 2) What impact does GECP have on grassland condition, and could it improve grassland condition? This study examines policy impacts on livestock production, grazing intensity, livestock structure and grassland condition by using panel data from a herders’ field survey of 176 pastoral households. This well-designed survey was conducted by the China Center for Agricultural Policy, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Peking University (CCAP, CAS & PKU) in 2015. A stratified random sampling strategy was used to select the sample. The descriptive analysis and econometric model were also used to analyze the impacts of the GECP, and then several policy implications were discussed in this paper.The major conclusions of this study are as follows: 1) The average number of livestock, grazing intensity and amount of supplementary feedings per household were increasing during 2005–2015. 2) Herders' subjective judgment of grassland condition showed that grassland quality in most regions of the study area has declined in the past 11 years. 3) Neither the grazing ban nor the forage-livestock balance had achieved its expected goal of reducing overgrazing, since the compensation is too low and the enforcement is weak. 4) The forage-livestock balance policy had incentivized large farms to reduce their sheep numbers by a small amount, namely if grassland size is increased by 1%, another 0.169% of sheep is reduced by the forage-livestock balance given other factors. 5) The forage-livestock balance policy had a positive effect on improving the use of supplementary feedings, and it could increase the average amount of supplementary feedings used by herders by 15.6 kg/sheep unit. 6) Based on the herders' perception of vegetation changes, it was found that both the permanent grazing ban and the forage-livestock balance had no significant impacts on grassland condition in Inner Mongolia. 7) Herders made their livestock production and grazing decisions primarily in response to the market prices of livestock products, and households with more off-farm labor units raised fewer livestock and grazed lighter. 8) The large farms graze lighter, the estimation result showed that one percentage increase in farm size leads to a decrease in stocking rate by 0.533%. 9) Overgrazing is the main cause of grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia. 10) Whether the grassland condition in arid and semi-arid areas can be improved depends mainly on the rainfall in that year.Based on the above conclusions, several policy implications are discussed in this paper: 1) To improve the effectiveness of the GECP, the enforcement should be enhanced, and then the standard of compensation should be improved properly. 2) Facilitating grassland transfer could help herders increase farm size, thus alleviating overgrazing and improving the effectiveness of the forage livestock balance policy on reducing livestock numbers. 3) Encourage herbage planting in non-pastoral areas with better irrigation conditions, increase the yield of artificial grassland, and increase the import of herbage appropriately, thus relieve the grazing pressure on natural grasslands by increasing the herbage and forage supply from non-pastoral areas to pastoral areas (especially the grazing ban zone). 4) Gradually improve the labor market in towns around, accelerate the urbanization of pastoral areas, and create more off-farm employment opportunities for herders should help to reduce over-grazing. 5) Appropriately increase the import of beef and mutton, and develop grasslands and animal husbandry industry in agricultural area at the same time, so that to increase the supply of domestic beef and mutton, and then curb the overgrazing situation caused by the continued increase in livestock prices.
Pages188
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/337994
Collection草地农业科技学院
Affiliation草地农业科技学院
First Author AffilicationCollege of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
胡远宁. 草原生态补奖政策对牧户畜牧养殖和草地的影响:内蒙实证研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2019.
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