兰州大学机构库 >草地农业科技学院
不同秸秆来源日粮添加酶制剂与牛至油对湖羊生产性能和瘤胃功能的影响
Alternative TitleEffect of enzyme and oregano oil supplementation in diets with different roughage sources on performances and ruminal function of Hu sheep
闫佰鹏
Thesis Advisor李发弟 ; 李飞
2019-05-25
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline畜牧学
Keyword育肥羊 饲料转化率 瘤胃发酵 微生物区系 血液生化指标
Abstract农作物秸秆是反刍动物常用的粗饲料来源,其所含的纤维物质可被瘤胃微生物消化利用,为机体生长发育提供能量,但仅约50%的能量才能被机体消化利用,其余大部分营养物质未被消化利用,使秸秆利用效率较低。酶制剂与牛至油主要通过改变瘤胃微生物菌群、水解纤维结构和抑制有害微生物增殖等途径提高粗饲料型日粮FCR(Feed conversion ratio, FCR)。本研究拟通过向不同秸秆来源日粮中添加酶制剂与牛至油,分别评价二者作为反刍动物日粮添加剂的应用效果,为粗饲料型日粮高效生产提供科学依据和理论指导。具体研究包括以下两部分:
试验一、研究不同秸秆来源日粮添加酶制剂对湖羊生长性能、养分消化率、血液生化指标及瘤胃微生物数量的影响   选择60只平均体重为29.49±0.33 kg的2月龄健康湖羊公羔为试验动物。采用2×2因子试验设计,试验因素为秸秆来源(玉米秸秆、小麦秸秆)和酶制剂添加水平(0%、0.30%)。每处理15个重复,每重复1只羊。试验期为84 d,其中过渡期14 d、预饲期7 d和正试期63 d。结果表明:1、酶制剂的添加对1~21 d和22~42 d湖羊体重、DMI、ADG与F/G无显著影响(P>0.05),可显著提高43~63 d体重和ADG(P<0.05)而对DMI和F/G无显著影响(P>0.05);整个试验期秸秆来源与酶制剂添加水平对湖羊F/G有显著影响(P<0.05),但对ADG、DMI、胴体重、尾脂重及屠宰率均无显著影响(P>0.05)。2、酶制剂的添加可显著提高湖羊对日粮DM和OM消化率(P<0.05);玉米秸秆组OM的消化率显著高于小麦秸秆组(P<0.05)。秸秆来源与酶制剂的添加对氮代谢无显著影响(P>0.05)。3、秸秆来源与酶制剂添加对TP、ALB、GLO、ALT、AST、ALP、LDH、BUN及TG浓度均无显著影响(P>0.05),但酶制剂的添加可显著提高湖羊血糖浓度(P<0.05);与饲喂小麦秸秆型日粮相比,玉米秸秆型日粮可显著提高CHO浓度(P<0.05)。4、添加酶制剂可显著提高湖羊瘤胃TVFA含量(P<0.05),但对乙酸、丙酸、戊酸、异戊酸比例及乙丙比无显著影响(P>0.05);与饲喂小麦秸秆型日粮相比,玉米秸秆组瘤胃丁酸比例显著增加(P<0.05);酶制剂的添加可显著提高瘤胃中Selenomonas ruminantium的数量(P<0.05),有增加Fibrobacter succinogenes数量的趋势(P<0.10)。与饲喂玉米秸秆型日粮相比,小麦秸秆型日粮可显著提高瘤胃中Ruminococcus albus和Fibrobacter succinogenes的数量(P<0.05)。
试验二、研究不同秸秆来源日粮添加牛至油对湖羊生长性能、养分消化率、血液生化指标及瘤胃微生物数量的影响   选择60只平均体重为29.33±0.29 kg的2月龄健康湖羊公羔为试验动物。随机分为4个处理组,试验因素为秸秆来源(玉米秸秆、小麦秸秆)和牛至油添加水平(0%、0.25%),试验设计同试验一。结果表明:1、牛至油的添加对1~21 d和22~42 d湖羊体重、DMI、ADG与F/G无显著影响(P>0.05),可显著提高43~63 d湖羊体重、ADG(P<0.05)而对DMI和F/G无显著影响(P>0.05);与饲喂小麦秸秆型日粮组相比,玉米秸秆型日粮可显著提高1~63 d湖羊ADG和FCR。2、添加牛至油对日粮DM、OM、NDF和ADF的消化率无显著影响(P>0.05),可显著提高沉积氮含量(P<0.05)。与饲喂小麦秸秆型日粮相比,玉米秸秆型日粮可显著提高日粮OM消化率(P<0.05)。3、秸秆来源与牛至油添加对TP、ALB、GLO、AST、ALP、LDH、UN、TG及CHO浓度均无显著影响(P>0.05),但牛至油的添加可显著提高湖羊血糖浓度(P<0.05)且对ALT有增加趋势(P<0.10)。4、添加牛至油可显著降低湖羊瘤胃液pH及提高TVFA浓度(P<0.05),对挥发酸比例及乙丙比无显著影响(P>0.05);与饲喂小麦秸秆型日粮相比,玉米秸秆型日粮可显著提高丁酸比例(P<0.05);与饲喂玉米秸秆型日粮相比,小麦秸秆型日粮组可显著提高瘤胃中Streptococcus bovis、Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens的数量及降低Selenomonas ruminantium的数量(P<0.05);牛至油添加对瘤胃Selenomonas ruminantium的数量影响显著(P<0.05)。日粮添加牛至油显著提高湖羊背最长肌脂肪酸C18:2 n-6t和C18:3 n-3的含量(P<0.05),但对不饱和脂肪酸(UFA)等功能性脂肪酸的含量无显著影响(P>0.05)。
综上,玉米秸秆与小麦秸秆型日粮添加酶制剂与牛至油可有效提高羔羊生长性能与营养物质消化率,同时增加瘤胃中TVFA含量,促进瘤胃发酵而对自身代谢无负面影响。酶制剂与牛至油可广泛应用于反刍动物日粮,对秸秆饲料合理利用、肉羊高效生产提供新的研究思路。
Other AbstractCrop straw is a common of roughage resources, which containing the fibrous material could be digested and utilized by rumen microorganisms to provide energy for ruminants, but less 50% of the energy could be digested and utilized by the animal. The enzyme and oregano oil mainly improve the feed conversion ratio of the roughage diet by changing the rumen microbial population, hydrolyzing the lignocellulosic structure and inhibiting the proliferation of harmful microbial. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of different straw sources supplementation with enzyme or oregano oil in the dietary on performances of Hu sheep, which provided the theoretical instruction and scientific basis for efficient production of forage diets. This study were divided into two sections:The first experiment aimed to determine the straw sources and enzyme on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood biochemical parameters and rumen microflora of Hu sheep.
The experiment adopted a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Corn stover or wheat straw-based diets were formulated with or without enzyme (0% or 0.30%). A total of 60 two-month-old healthy Hu sheep (29.49±0.33 kg) were assigned to four dietary treatments, with fifteen replicates in each treatment and a sheep in each replicates. The trial period was 84 days, which included 14 d for the transition test period, 7 d for the preliminary test period and 63 d for the formal trial period. The results were shown as follow:1. There were no significant differences in body weight, DMI, ADG and F/G all groups of 1~21 d and 22~42 d (P>0.05). There were significantly increased in body weight and average daily gain among enzyme addition groups of 43~63 d (P<0.05). However, the dry matter intake and feed to gain were no significant difference between the treatments (P>0.05).The enzyme supplementation in diets with different straw source had the difference feed to gain among group during formal trial period (P<0.05), but have no effect on the average daily gain, dry matter intake, carcass weight, tail fat weight, dressing percentage in each group (P>0.05);2. There were significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter in enzyme addition groups (P<0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter in corn straw group were significantly higher that in wheat straw group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the apparent of crude protein and nitrogen metabolism in each group (P>0.05);3. The enzyme supplementation in diets with different straw source had no significant difference on the concentrations of TP, ALB, GLO, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, UN, and TG (P>0.05), but were significantly increased the concentrations of GLU in enzyme treatments groups (P<0.05). The concentrations of CHO of sheep fed corn straw-based diets were significantly higher than that of sheep fed wheat straw-based diets (P<0.05);4. Adding enzyme significantly affect the concentrations of total volatile fatty acid (P<0.05), but the concentrations of acetate, propionate, valerate, isovalerate and acetate to propionate were not significantly difference in each group (P>0.05). The concentrations of butyrate of sheep fed corn straw-based diets were significantly higher than that of sheep fed wheat straw-based diets (P<0.05). There were significantly increased the number of Selenomonas ruminantium in the enzyme addition groups (P<0.05), and the number of Fibrobacter succinogenes was increased (P<0.10). The number of Ruminococcus albus and Fibrobacter succinogenes of sheep fed wheat straw-based diets were significantly higher than that of sheep fed corn straw-based diets (P<0.05).
The second experiment aimed to determine the straw sources adding oregano oil on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood biochemical parameters and rumen microflora of Hu sheep.The experiment adopted a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Corn stover or wheat straw-based diets were formulated with or without oregano oil (0% or 0.25%). A total of 60 two-month-old healthy Hu sheep (29.33±0.29 kg) were assigned to four dietary treatments. Experiment design was the same as the first experiment.The results were shown as follow:
1. There were no significant difference in body weight, DMI, ADG and F/G all groups of 1~21 d and 22~42 d (P>0.05). There were significantly increased in body weight and ADG among oregano oil addition groups of 43~63 d (P<0.05), but the DMI and feed to gain in groups were no significant difference (P>0.05). The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of sheep fed corn straw-based diets were significantly higher than that of sheep fed wheat straw-based diets (P<0.05);2. There were no significant differences in the apparent digestibility DM, OM, NDF and ADF between the treatments (P>0.05), but supplementation oregano oil significantly increased the content of nitrogen deposition (P<0.05). The apparent digestibility of OM of sheep fed corn straw-based diets were significantly higher than that of sheep fed wheat straw-based diets (P<0.05);3. The oregano oil supplementation in diets with different straw source had no significant differences on the concentrations of TP, ALB, GLO, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, UN, TG and CHO (P>0.05). The concentrations of blood glucose of lambs fed supplementation with oregano oil diets were significant higher than others group (P<0.05), and had a tendency to increase the concentrations of ALT (P<0.10).4. The oregano oil supplementation in diets with different straw sources were significantly decreased the ruminal pH and increased the concentration of total VFA , but the concentration of individual fatty acid and the ratio of acetate to propionate were no significant difference (P>0.05). The concentrations of butyrate of lambs fed supplementation with oregano oil diets were significant higher than others groups (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the number of Streptococcus bovis and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens of lambs fed wheat straw-based diets were significant higher than that of sheep fed corn straw-based diets (P<0.05), and were significantly decreased the number of Selenomonas ruminantium (P<0.05); Adding oregano oil significantly affect the number of Selenomonas ruminantium (P<0.05). The oregano oil supplementation in diets with different straw source significantly increased the content of C18:2 n-6t and C18:3 n-3 in the longissimus dorsi of Hu sheep (P<0.05), but had no effect on the content of saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid in each groups (P<0.05).
In summary, the enzyme and oregano oil supplementation in diets with corn-based straw and wheat-based straw could effectively improve the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of lambs. Meanwhile, increased the concentration of TVFA in rumen, but had no negative effects on nutritional metabolism. Enzyme and oregano oil could be widely used in ruminant diets, which may provide new theoretical basis for reasonable untilization of crop straw and high-efficient productivity of mutton sheep.
Pages72
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/338123
Collection草地农业科技学院
Affiliation草地农业科技学院
First Author AffilicationCollege of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
闫佰鹏. 不同秸秆来源日粮添加酶制剂与牛至油对湖羊生产性能和瘤胃功能的影响[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2019.
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