兰州大学机构库 >草地农业科技学院
基于InVEST模型的黄土高原人工灌草系统土壤保持功能评估
Alternative TitleThe evaluation of the soil conservation function of shrub and grassland system based on the InVEST model in Loess Plateau
李妙莹
Thesis Advisor刘兴元
2019-05-20
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline农村与区域发展
KeywordInVEST模型 人工灌草系统 生态服务功能 土壤保持功能评估 黄土高原
Abstract黄土高原是生态环境特别薄弱和敏感的区域,在水流的长期侵蚀作用下,使该区域成为土壤侵蚀最为严重的区域之一,严重地影响和制约着该地区生态安全、经济和社会的可持续发展。土壤保持是黄土高原地区的首要任务,土壤保持功能也是该地区生态系统服务的主导功能,而人工灌草系统作为黄土高原地区土壤保持发挥重要作用的植被类型,评估其土壤保持功能,认识人工灌草系统生态服务的重要地位和作用具有重要的意义。本研究以定西市安定区为例,利用InVEST模型和ArcGIS软件,对2017年黄土高原丘陵区人工灌草生态系统土壤保持功能进行评估,为黄土高原地区生态保护政策的制定提供决策依据。研究结果如下:(1)利用Wischmeier 月尺度公式计算出安定区的降雨侵蚀力R值介于146-881(MJ·mm/hm2·h·a),ArcGIS空间插值分析结果表明在空间上R值呈由北向南升高的态势,南部地区成为土壤侵蚀较为严重的区域。(2)利用EPIC模型计算安定区的土壤可蚀性K值介于0.0133-0.0177(t·hm2·h·hm-2·MJ-1·mm-1)之间。ArcGIS空间插值分析结果表明,在空间上土壤可蚀性K值呈由北向南逐渐降低的态势。(3)应用InVEST模型,计算出安定区2017年的实际土壤侵蚀总量为9.53×106t,单位面积的平均土壤侵蚀量为26.4t/hm2。其中,微度与轻度侵蚀占了安定区面积的98.96%,占总实际土壤侵蚀量的79.4%;中度、强烈、极强烈和剧烈侵蚀4类仅占了安定区面积的1.04%,占总实际土壤侵蚀量的20.6%,表明安定区的土壤侵蚀主要表现为微度与轻度侵蚀。(4)对不同土地利用类型土壤侵蚀量进行比较,按照实际土壤侵蚀量由大到小排序为:耕地(768.07×104t)>天然草地(129.19×104t)>建设用地(30.1×104t)>未利用土地(14.77×104t)>人工灌草地(9.69×104t)>林地(1.16×104t)>水域(0.079×104t)。由于耕地面积占该区域总面积的32.69%,实际土壤侵蚀量和侵蚀强度均为最大,侵蚀强度达到64.99t/hm2,总侵蚀量达到7.68×106t,占该区域土壤侵蚀总量的80.59%。人工灌草系统的面积占该区域总面积的29.7%,侵蚀强度为0.9t/hm2,总侵蚀量达到9.69×104t,实际土壤侵蚀量仅占该区域土壤侵蚀量总量的1.02%。在单位面积上进行比较,人工灌草系统的土壤侵蚀量仅为耕地侵蚀量的1.38%。(5)土壤保持量的计算结果表明,安定区单位面积的平均土壤保持量为167.3t/hm2,其中,人工灌草系统单位面积的土壤保持量最高,达308.76t/hm2,是平均水平的1.85倍。全区土壤保持的总量是6.04×107t,其中,人工灌草系统达33.1×106t,占总土壤保持量的54%。按土壤保持总量由大到小排序为:人工灌草地(3310.21×104t)>天然草地(2042.03×104t)>耕地(606.9×104t)>建设用地(50.17×104t)>林地(23.56×104t)>未利用土地(4.55×104t)>水域(0.54×104t)。
Other AbstractThe Loess Plateau is a particularly weak and sensitive ecological environment. Under the long-term erosion of water flow, it has become one of the most severely soil erosion areas, seriously affecting and restricting the ecological security, economic and social sustainability of the region. Soil conservation is the primary task of the Loess Plateau. Soil conservation is also the dominant function of ecosystem services in the region. The shrub and grassland system is a type of vegetation that plays an important role in soil conservation in the Loess Plateau. Assessing its soil conservation function is of great significance for understanding the important position and role of shrub and grassland system . This study takes the example of Anding District, Dingxi City, by using the InVEST model and ArcGIS software, to study the soil conservation function of the shrub and grassland system in the hilly area of the Loess Plateau in 2017, provide decision-making basis for the formulation of ecological protection policies in the Loess Plateau. The research results are as follows:First, using the Wischmeier formula to calculate the rainfall erosivity R in Anding District is between146-881146-881(MJ·mm/hm2·h·a), through the ArcGIS analysis, the rainfall erosivity increases from north to south, the high value of rainfall erosivity appears in the southern part of the study area.Second, using the EPIC model to calculate the soil corrosion K in the Anding District is between 0.0133-0.0177(t·hm2·h·hm-2·MJ-1·mm-1).Through the ArcGIS analysis, the soil corrosion K is reduced from north to south.Third, using the InVEST model, the actual soil erosion in Anding District in 2017 was calculated to be 9.53×106t, average soil erosion per unit area in Anding District was 26.4t/hm2t. Soil slight erosion and mild erosion accounted for 98.96% of the total area and 70.4% of total erosion; moderate erosion, strong erosion, extremely strong erosion and severe erosion accounted for 1.04% of the total area and 20.6% of total erosion. It indicates that the soil erosion in Anding District is mainly characterized by slight and mild erosion.Fourth, According to the order of land use, the actual soil erosion from large to small is: cultivated land(768.07×104t)> natural grassland(129.19×104t)>construction land(30.1×104t)>unused land(14.77×104t)>shrub and grassland system(9.69×104t)>forest land(1.16×104t)>water area(0.079×104t). The area of cultivated land accounts for 32.69% of the total region, the actual soil erosion and erosion intensity are the largest, the soil erosion intensity reaches 64.99t/hm2, and the actual soil erosion reaches 7.68×106t, accounting for 80.59% of the total actual soil erosion in the region. The area of the shrub and grassland system accounts for 29.7% of the total region, the soil erosion intensity is 0.9t/hm2, the actual soil erosion is 9.69×104t, and the actual soil erosion for only 1.02% of the total actual soil erosion in this area. Comparing the unit area, the actual soil erosion of the shrub and grassland system is only 1.38% of the cultivated land.Fifth, the calculation results of soil conservation volume showed that the average soil conservation volume per unit area in Anding District was 167.3t/hm2t. Among them, the soil conservation volume per unit area of the shrub and grassland system was the highest, reaching 308.76t/hm2, which was 1.85 times of the average level. The total soil conservation volume in the region was 6.04×107t, of which the shrub and grassland system reached 33.1×106t, accounting for 54% of the total soil conservation volume. According to the order of land use, the soil conservation volume from large to small is: shrub and grassland system(3310.21×104t)>natural grassland(2042.03×104t)>cultivated land(606.9×104t)>construction land(50.17×104t)>forest land(23.56×104t)>unused land(4.55×104t)>water area(0.54×104t).
Pages54
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/338157
Collection草地农业科技学院
Affiliation草地农业科技学院
First Author AffilicationCollege of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李妙莹. 基于InVEST模型的黄土高原人工灌草系统土壤保持功能评估[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2019.
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