兰州大学机构库 >草地农业科技学院
黄土高原丘陵区人工灌草系统水源涵养功能评估
Alternative TitleThe evaluation of Water conservation Function of shrub-grassland system in hilly region of the Loess Plateau
张博
Thesis Advisor刘兴元
2019-05-20
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline农村与区域发展
Keyword人工灌草系统 InVEST模型 水源涵养功能 黄土高原丘陵区
Abstract黄土高原丘陵区是我国水土流失较为严重的地区,自20世纪80年代以来,该地区建立了大面积的人工灌草系统,取得了较好的生态、经济和社会效益。开展人工灌草系统服务功能评估对该系统的保护和建设具有重要的理论和实践意义。本研究以甘肃省定西市安定区为例,运用InVEST模型对2017年安定区人工灌草系统的水源涵养功能进行评估,并对水源涵养和水质净化功能进行了冷热点和重要性分级及空间量化分析。基于评估结果,提出了黄土高原丘陵区生态系统存在的问题和未来发展重点。主要结论如下:(1)安定区单位面积产水量为292.67 m3/hm2,基于栅格单元的平均产水量为0-460.825 mm,年产水量总量为3.41×108 m3。依据产水量评估结果,核算出2017年安定区单位面积水源涵养量为102.13 m3/hm2,栅格单元平均水源涵养量介于0-364.541 mm之间,水源涵养的评估总量为1.19×108 m3;产水量与水源涵养量在空间分布上呈西南高东北低的分布特征。利用Gi * 统计方法,得出安定区生态系统服务冷热点的空间分布特征为:热点在西南地区分布较多,冷点主要分布在中部偏东地区。(2)安定区P单位面积输出量与保持量分别为0.51 kg/hm2和1.59 kg/hm2,P输出总量和保持总量分别为172.7 t和564.6 t;N单位面积输出量和保持量分别为2.44 kg/hm2和7.22 kg/hm2,N的输出总量与保持总量分别为838.87 t和2586.92 t。水质净化功能在空间上呈西河、称钩河流域分布比较高,在东部地区分布较低。安定区生态系统服务冷热点的空间分布特征为:N输出与P输出的冷热点分布情况差异较小,有很多重叠的部分,其分布情况由西南至东北呈逐渐降低的趋势,与水源涵养功能的分布特征一致。(3)结合安定区土地利用类型图对水源涵养和水质净化功能进行比较分析,在不同土地利用类型中,单位面积水源涵养功能按大小排序为:草地>人工灌草地>耕地>林地>未利用土地>建设用地。其中,人工灌草系统单位面积涵养水源的能力为369.25 m3/hm2,排名第二。水质净化功能中N的净化率由高至低排序依次为:林地(85.85%)>草地(72.24%)>人工灌草地(72.21%)>未利用土地(68.92%)>建设用地(65.24%)>水域(61.51%)>耕地(59.47%)。P的净化率由高至低排序低依次为:林地(79.13%)>草地(72.26%)>人工灌草地(71.07%)>水域(69.32%)>未利用土地(69.06%)>耕地(68%)>建设用地(65.52%)。其中,在人工灌草系统中氮、磷的净化率分别是72.21%和71.07%,从高至低排序都是第三名。评估结果表明在黄土高原丘陵区人工灌草系统具有较好的水源涵养和水质净化功能。(4)运用ArcGIS 10.5软件中的Reclassify工具对安定区的水源涵养和水质净化功能进行了分级,输出结果显示水源涵养及水质净化功能的等级分布有很大差异。此外,通过对水源涵养与水质净化功能的空间叠置分析,将其划分为5个等级。评估结果表明人工灌草系统的极重要区与高度重要区的面积在人工灌草系统总面积中占比很高,分别占总土地面积的51%和44%,在七种不同土地利用类型中人工灌草系统的水源涵养和水质净化功能最好。
Other AbstractThe water and soil erosion is very serious in hilly region of the Loess Plateau in China, a large-scale artificial shrub-grassland system has been established in this region since the 1980s, which has achieved good ecological, economic and social benefits. Therefor the evaluation of service function of shrub-grassland system has important theoretical and practical significance for the protection and construction of the Loess Plateau ecosystem. This study took Anding district, Dingxi city, Gansu province as an example, and used InVEST model to evaluate the water conservation function of the artificial shrub-grassland system in Anding district in 2017. In addition, it classified the cold and hot spots and the importance of water conservation and water quality purification function, and made quantitative spatial analysis. Based on the evaluation results, the existing problems and future development priorities of the ecosystem in the hilly region of the Loess Plateau were put forward. The main conclusions are as follows:Firstly, The water yield per unit area in the Anding area is 292.67 m3/hm2, the average water yield of grid unit is 0-460.825 mm, and the total annual water yield is 3.41×108 m3. According to the assessment results of water yield, it is calculated that the water conservation per unit area of the Anding area in 2017 is 102.13 m3/hm2, the average water conservation of grid unit is between 0-364.541 mm, and the total water conservation assessment is 1.19×108 m3. The spatial distribution of water yield and water conservation is higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast. Using Gi * statistical method, the spatial distribution characteristics of cold and hot spots for ecosystem services in the stable region are as follows: hot spots are mostly distributed in the southwest region, while cold spots are mainly distributed in the east-central region.Secondly, the output and retention of P per unit area in the Anding area are 0.51 kg/hm2 and 1.59 kg/hm2 respectively, and the total output and retention of P are 172.7t and 564.6 t respectively. The output and retention of N per unit area are 2.44 kg/hm2 and 7.22 kg/hm2 respectively, and the total output and retention of N are 838.87 t and 2586.92 t respectively. The water purification function is higher in the Xihe and Chenggou River basins and lower in the eastern regions. The spatial distribution characteristics of cold and hot spots of ecosystem services in Anding district are as follows: the distribution of cold and hot spots output by N and P has a small difference and a lot of overlaps, and the distribution characteristic is decreasing gradually from southwest to northeast, which is consistent with the distribution characteristics of water conservation function.Thirdly, combine the land use type map to analyze the water conservation and water purification functions of Anding district in 2017. Among different land use types, the water conservation functions per unit area are ranked by size as follows: grassland > artificial irrigated grassland > cultivated land > forest land > unused land > construction land. The artificial shrub-grassland system have a capacity of 369.25 m3/hm2 per unit, it was ranked second. The purification rate of N in the water purification function is in order from high to low: forest land (85.85%) > grassland (72.24%) > artificial irrigated grassland (72.21%) > unused land (68.92%) > construction land (65.24%) > water area (61.51%) > cultivated land (59.47%). The purification rate of P from high to low was as followed: forest land (79.13%) > grassland (72.26%) > artificial irrigated grassland(71.07%) > water area (69.32%) > unused land (69.06%) > cultivated land(68%) > construction land (65.52%). Among them, the net rates of nitrogen and phosphorus in the artificial shrub-grassland system are 72.21% and 71.07% respectively, ranking the third from high to low. The evaluation results showed that the artificial shrub-grassland system in the hilly region of the Loess Plateau has greatr water conservation and water purification function.Fourthly, using the Reclassify tool of ArcGIS software (10.5) to classify the water conservation and water purification functions in the Anding district. The output results showed that the grade distribution of water conservation and water quality purification functions is very different. In addition, the spatial superposition analysis of water conservation and water purification function divided it into five levels.The evaluation results showed that the extremely important area and highly important area of the artificial shrub-grassland system have a high proportion, accounting for 51% and 44% of the total land area respectively. Among seven different land use types, the artificial shrub-grassland system have the best water conservation and water quality purification function.
Pages64
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/338162
Collection草地农业科技学院
Affiliation草地农业科技学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张博. 黄土高原丘陵区人工灌草系统水源涵养功能评估[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2019.
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