兰州大学机构库 >草地农业科技学院
蜜蜂肽对湖羊生产性能及瘤胃微生物区系的影响
Alternative TitleThe effect of Apidaecin on the performances and rumen microflora of Hu sheep
李世易
Thesis Advisor李飞
2019-05-25
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline养殖
Keyword湖羊 蜜蜂肽 最小抑菌浓度 体外发酵 瘤胃微生物
Abstract抗菌肽(Antimicrobial peptides,AMPs)作为抗生素的新型替代物,具有抗多种病原性微生物,提高家畜生产性能,提高养殖业的经济效益等作用。目前已广泛应用于猪、鸡养殖中。在集约化养殖中,反刍动物易受病原微生物侵袭,从而导致瘤胃微生物区系改变,生产性能下降,上述情况受到饲料添加剂的调控。本研究旨在探究新型饲料添加剂AMPs——蜜蜂肽的抑菌效果,及其对育肥湖羊生产性能和瘤胃微生物区系的影响,为蜜蜂肽作为反刍动物饲料添加剂应用于育肥绵羊提供参考。试验一 体外法研究蜜蜂肽对瘤胃微生物的影响  本试验所用蜜蜂肽由甘肃奥林贝尔生物科技集团有限公司提供,大肠杆菌ATCC10003和沙门氏菌ATCC10467均购自中国工业微生物菌种保存中心,通过药敏试验确定蜜蜂肽对大肠杆菌(E.coli)和沙门氏菌(salmonella)的最小抑菌浓度和最低抑菌效价;体外发酵试验采用单因子试验设计,共3个处理,分别添加0、0.75 mg、1.5 mg蜜蜂肽,每个处理7个重复。在试验前,在每个玻璃发酵瓶内准确称取1 g饲粮,进行体外发酵,发酵24 h冰水终止发酵,收集产气和发酵液,测定瘤胃发酵液pH,确定蜜蜂肽对发酵液气体产量、挥发性脂肪酸浓度以及部分微生物的影响。试验结果:蜜蜂肽对于E.coli、salmonella的最小抑菌浓度均为0.625 g/mL,最低抗菌效价均为533.33 AU/mL。体外发酵24 h,0.75 mg的蜜蜂肽能显著提高瘤胃内乙酸的浓度和乙酸丙酸比(P<0.05),显著降低丙酸浓度(P<0.05),提高CH4产量(P<0.05),有提高普雷沃氏菌含量的趋势(P=0.078)。试验二 蜜蜂肽对育肥湖羊生产性能和瘤胃微生物区系的影响  选择2月龄断奶、体重在25-30 kg的湖羊公羔180只。试验采用单因素试验设计,共5个处理,30个试验栏位,每个处理6个栏位,每栏饲养6只羊。蜜蜂肽配合饲料时以预混料形式添加到日粮处理,分别为对照组(无抗生素及蜜蜂肽添加日粮)、100 g/T组(基础日粮+100 g/T蜜蜂肽)、200 g/T组(基础日粮+200 g/T蜜蜂肽)、400 g/T组(基础日粮+400 g/T蜜蜂肽)、800 g/T(基础日粮+800 g/T蜜蜂肽)。试验过渡期14 d、预饲期14 d,正试期63 d。试验结果如下:1. 湖羊饲喂蜜蜂肽显著增加全期平均日增重(Average daily gain, ADG)(P<0.05)。全期的体重随饲料中蜜蜂肽添加量的提高,呈显著线性增加(P<0.05);平均日采食量(Average daily feed intake, ADFI)随饲料中蜜蜂肽添加量的提高,呈显著线性增加(P<0.05);料重比与饲料中蜜蜂肽含量,呈显著线性负相关(P<0.05)。2. 饲料中添加蜜蜂肽能显著提高瘤胃中反刍兽新月形单胞菌和产琥珀酸丝状杆菌的数量,随蜜蜂肽浓度的增加,两种菌数量均呈先降低后增加的二次变化(P<0.05),普雷沃氏菌的数量变化显著(P<0.05),且随蜜蜂肽浓度的增加,该菌数量呈先增加后降低的二次变化趋势,嗜淀粉瘤胃杆菌的数量和内厚壁菌门的丰度呈显著线性增加(P<0.05)。添加蜜蜂肽显著提高无壁菌门的丰度,而且随饲料中蜜蜂肽含量的提高,该菌丰度呈现降低后增加的变化。饲料中的蜜蜂肽能显著提高瘤胃内乙酸比例和降低丙酸比例(P<0.05),且随蜜蜂肽含量的增加,比例均呈先增加后降低的二次变化;能显著降低瘤胃内异丁酸的比例(P<0.05),随蜜蜂肽含量的增加,异丁酸呈先降低后增加的二次变化;还能显著提高瘤胃内乙丙比(P<0.05),乙丙比随蜜蜂肽浓度的提高呈先增加后降低的二次变化。综上所述,蜜蜂肽能特异性抑制革兰氏阴性菌大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌,还可以提高乙酸比例,降低丙酸比例,提高乙丙比,促进瘤胃乙酸型发酵;给育肥湖羊饲喂添加有蜜蜂肽的饲料,能够提高育肥湖羊的生产性能,调节其瘤胃微生物区系和瘤胃发酵。
Other AbstractAs a new substitute of antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can resist many kinds of pathogenic microorganisms, improve livestock performance, and improve the economic benefits of breeding industry.The AMPs have been widely used in pig and chicken production. In intensive farming system, high-concentrate diets are often used for livestock fattening production,which have a negative effect on rumen health of ruminants. The purpose of this study was to explore the bacteriostatic effect of a new type of AMPs-Apidaecin and its effect on the growth performance and rumen function of Hu sheep, which intend to provide some reference for Apidaecin as a feed additive for fattening sheep feeding.Effect of Apidaecin on rumen microorganisms in vitro  The apidaecin used in this experiment was provided by Gansu Olymbel Biotechnology Group Co., Ltd. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum inhibitory titer of Apidaecin against E. coli and Salmonella were determined by susceptibility test. In addition three treatments were designed by single factor test, and Apidaecin were added at 0, 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg, with 7 replicates in each treatment. Before the experiment, 1 g diet was accurately weighed into each glass fermentation flask and with ice water to stops fermentation after 24 hours. Gas and fermentation broth were used to determined rumen pH gas compositions, volatile fatty acid concentration and some microorganisms. The results are as follows: the minimum bacteriostatic concentration for E.coli and Salmonella was 0.625 g/mL, and the lowest antimicrobial titer was 533.33 AU/mL. During 24 h in vitro fermenation, 0.75% Apidaecin could significantly increase the concentration of acetate and acetate to propionate ratio in rumen (P<0.05), and significantly reduce the concentration of propionic acid (P<0.05). The yield of CH4 was significantly increased (P<0.05). There was a tendency to increase Prevotella brevis content (P=0.078).Effect of compound Apidaecin on performances and rumen microflora of fattening Hu sheep  A total of 180 male Hu sheep with 2 months age and 25-30 kg body weight were selected. The experiment was designed by single factor experiment. There were 5 treatments, 30 test unit, 6 units for each treatment, and 6 sheep for each unit. When Apidaecin were supplied and added to the diet in the form of premixed, they were as follows: control group (no antibiotics and Apidaecin supplemented diet), 100 g/T (basic diet + 100 g/T Apidaecin), 200 g/T (basic diet + 200 g/T Apidaecin), 400 g/T (basic diet + 400 g/T Apidaecin), 800 g/T (basic diet + 800 g/T Apidaecin), respectively. The trial transition period was 14 days, the pre-feeding period was 14 days, and the trial period was 63 days.           The results are as follows:1. Feeding Apidaecin significantly increased the average daily gain (ADG) throughout the trail period (P<0.05). The whole body weight gain increased linearly with the increase of Apidaecin in the feed (P<0.05); the average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency increased with the addition of Apidaecin in the feed and there was a significant linear increase (P<0.05).2. The addition of Apidaecin in the feed can quadratically increase the number of Selenomonas ruminantium and Fibrobacter succinogenes in the rumen(P<0.05). And the number of Prevotella brevis changed quadratically(P<0.05). Meanwhile Apidaecin significantly linear increase the number of Ruminobacter amylophilus and the abundance of the Firmicutes (P<0.05). The addition of Apidaecin quadratically changed the abundance of the Tenericutes(P<0.05).The Apidaecin in the feed can significantly increase the proportion of acetate in the rumen and decrease the proportion of propionic acid (P<0.05). It could significantly reduce the proportion of isobutyric acid in the rumen (P<0.05). And there is a quadratic exponential relationship between the content of Apidaecin and the isobutyric acid. The proportion of acetate to propionate in the rumen was quadratically increased (P<0.05).To sum up, Apidaecin not only inhibit E.coli and Salmonella, but also increase the ratio of acetate, reduce the ratio of propionate, increase the ratio of acetate to propionate, and promote acetate production in rumen. Apidaecin can improve the production performance of fattening Hu sheep, regulate its rumen microflora and fermentation.
Pages57
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/338170
Collection草地农业科技学院
Affiliation草地农业科技学院
First Author AffilicationCollege of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李世易. 蜜蜂肽对湖羊生产性能及瘤胃微生物区系的影响[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2019.
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