兰州大学机构库 >管理学院
中国减灾政策变迁与演进逻辑研究
Alternative TitleResearch on the Change and Evolution Logic of China's Disaster Reduction Policy
赵官虎
Thesis Advisor沙勇忠
2019-05-20
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline政府绩效管理
Keyword减灾 减灾政策 政策变迁 灾害管理
Abstract中国是世界上受到自然灾害影响最为严重的国家之一,灾害种类多,分布地域广。同自然灾害抗争是人类社会生存和发展的永恒课题,中国中央政府逐步加强灾害管理,持续推进减灾工作,制定了一系列的减灾政策指导减灾工作,尽量减少灾害造成的人员伤亡和经济损失。减灾政策体系的完善程度和执行效果直接关系到社会经济发展和人民群众生命财产安全,因此,运用科学的研究方法探究减灾政策体系的变迁之路,整体性描绘减灾政策体系的全貌具有重要的意义和价值。根据实证分析结果,1989—2017年的中国减灾政策的发展可以分为三个阶段:即政策起步发展阶段1989—1999年,政策快速发展阶段2000—2009年,政策稳定执行阶段2010—2017年。从减灾政策主题方面来看,每阶段的减灾政策均有不同的政策主题和关注内容,政策内容越来越多,减灾政策主题愈来愈丰富,中国减灾政策体系不断完善和发展;总体来说,在所有的自然灾害中,减灾政策对地震灾害的关注度最高。从减灾政策主体协同方面来看,减灾政策主体联合发布的政策数量越来越多,并且参与联合发文的部门越来越多,政策主体结构网络密度越来越高,合作程度逐渐提高,减灾政策的协同有效性得到提升。整体上来说,我国综合减灾管理理念得到迅速发展,但分灾种管理体系仍继续运行,综合减灾管理理念与分灾种管理体系未能完全整合。通过文本分析对减灾政策在各阶段的直观特点进行分析,本文结合政策分析理论、焦点事件理论和综合减灾理论,从政策理念、政策变迁驱动力两个维度分析减灾政策的演进逻辑。本文发现中国减灾政策变迁的历史逻辑是政策理念从注重灾后救助向注重灾前预防转变,从应对单一灾种向综合减灾转变,持续关注地震等重大自然灾害;政策变迁驱动因素有重大焦点事件、技术革新和社会经济发展。本文将焦点事件理论置入公共政策的变迁研究,通过对中国减灾政策进行梳理,进而阐释我国减灾政策的演进逻辑,发现焦点事件理论在中国情境下对减灾政策变迁具有较强的解释力。根据中国减灾政策历史变迁的特征和逻辑,为完善中国减灾政策,本文从政策内容、政策主体协作和政策评估三个方面提出了政策参考建议,以期促进减灾工作的发展,进而加快中国灾害管理水平的提高。
Other AbstractChina is one of the countries most affected by natural disasters in the world, with many types of disasters and a wide geographical distribution. Combating with natural disasters is an eternal theme for the survival and development of human society. The China central government has gradually strengthened disaster management, continually promoted disaster reduction and formulated a series of disaster reduction policies, which can effectively cut down casualties and economic losses caused by disasters. The degree of improvement and implementation effect of the disaster reduction policy are directly related to social and economic development and the safety of people's lives and property. Therefore, using scientific research methods to explore the path of disaster reduction policy change, it is meaningful and valuable to describe the overall picture of the disaster reduction policy system.According to the results of empirical analysis, China’s disaster reduction policy from 1989 to 2017 can be divided into three stages: initial stage 1989-1999, rapid development stage 2000-2009 and stable implementation stage 2010-2017. From the perspective of the theme of disaster reduction policy, each stage of the disaster reduction policy has different policy themes and concerns, with more and more policy content, the theme of disaster reduction policy is becoming more and more abundant, and China's disaster reduction policy system is continuously improved and developed; in all natural disasters, disaster reduction policies have the highest attention to earthquake disasters. From the perspective of coordination of the disaster reduction policy subjects, the number of policies jointly issued by the disaster reduction policy subjects is increasing, and more and more departments are participating in joint publication. The network density of disaster reduction policy subjects structure is getting higher and higher, the degree of cooperation is gradually increasing, and the disaster reduction policy is gradually improved. The coordination effectiveness of disaster reduction policy is improved. On the whole, China's comprehensive disaster reduction management concept has been rapidly developed, but the sub-disaster management system continues to operate, and the integrated disaster reduction management concept and the sub-disaster management system are not fully integrated.Through the text analysis, the visual characteristics of the disaster reduction policy are analyzed at each stage. From the policy concept and policy change driving force, this paper combines the policy analysis theory, the focusing event theory and the comprehensive disaster reduction theory to analyze the evolutionary logic of disaster reduction policy. This paper finds that the evolutionary logic of China's disaster reduction policy changes is that the policy concept shifts from focusing on post-disaster relief to focusing on pre-disaster prevention, from responding to single disasters to comprehensive disaster reduction, and continuously paying attention to major natural disasters such as earthquakes; driving factors of the policy change include major focusing events, technological innovation and social and economic development. This paper puts the focusing event theory into the study of the change of public policy, through the combing of China's disaster reduction policy, and then explains the evolution logic of China's disaster reduction policy, and finds that the focus event theory has a strong explanatory for the disaster reduction policy change in the Chinese context.According to the characteristics and logic of the historical changes of China's disaster reduction policy, in order to improve China's disaster reduction policy, this paper puts forward policy recommendations from three aspects: policy content, policy subjects coordination and policy evaluation to promote the development of China's disaster reduction work, and accelerate the improvement of China disaster management level.
Pages60
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/340125
Collection管理学院
Affiliation管理学院
First Author AffilicationSchool of Management
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵官虎. 中国减灾政策变迁与演进逻辑研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2019.
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