兰州大学机构库 >历史文化学院
多元一体格局中的民族与国家之互惠认同研究:以抗日战争时期的回族为例
Alternative TitleA study on Minzu and National reciprocal identity: A case of Huizu during the period of War of Resistance Against Japan
柴亚林
Thesis Advisor杨文炯
2019-05-16
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline民族社会学
Keyword回族 民族认同 国家认同 抗日战争
Abstract本文以抗日战争时期的回族为研究视点,将西方民族国家瓜分中国以及中国从王朝到民国的历史转型作为宏观语境,在日本侵华与中国抗日这一“国家关系”和中国的回族与日本的“回教国”阴谋这一历史“对比”的场景中,聚焦回族如何在民族认同与国家认同的复合层面上以抗战救国、民族文化自觉等方式表达、实践多民族国家的“互惠认同”。通过这一个案的研究,本文利用田野调查资料和口述史料,运用民族学、社会学和历史学等学科理论,基于文献的民族学、社会学、历史学、政治学的解读与分析研究,尝试提出一个多民族国家“互惠认同”理论与分析框架。回族的民族认同和国家认同在中华民族危亡关头所展示出的互动与互惠被刻写于回族的抗战记忆之中,进而可以被当代人所回忆并在新的层次上巩固和强化国家认同与民族认同;这一进程将形塑并统御当代回族关于抗日战争的记忆之场,藉此,我们可以更加清晰地观察和认识回族的民族认同与国家认同互惠模式如何在当代呈现历史性的承袭。抗日战争爆发之后,回族与中国其他各民族一起共赴国难,团结一致、抗战救国。日本企图在中国利用民族主义所涵纳的“一个民族,一个国家”的政治理念制造民族分裂,片面鼓吹和强调回族的民族认同,掀动褊狭的民族主义情绪,并试图解构其国家认同,以求实现建立所谓基于“民族自决”原则的“回教国”的傀儡政权。面对外敌入侵,回族作为中华民族共同体的有机组成部分,自觉地表达和实践民族认同和国家认同,进而成功反制日本的“回教工作”和“回教国”阴谋。笔者认为,回族的民族认同与国家认同之间存在着强韧的关联关系。就其内在结构而言,回族的民族认同与国家认同在复合认同场中形成了共生、互联、互补、互惠的关系模式,它们各自的建构与重构过程对于另一方的建构与重构过程来说,都是一种良性的、有益的补充;同时,回族的民族认同与国家认同于外在的表达与实践过程中,也表现出联动互补、相辅相成的特点。为了凸显回族的民族认同与国家认同之间的这种互动关系模式,本文将处于这一关系模式之下的民族认同与国家认同称为多民族国家中的互惠认同。在中国传统文化的表达语境之中,互惠是不同主体之间相互付出的仁爱。爱是人类的基本情感需求之一,我们对于仁爱的理解应当将其扩大为一种社会性的阐释,即是说,我们同样会对社会提出仁爱的诉求。这种源自于外部社会的仁爱是一种生存尊严的隐喻,它直观地投射为人对人的尊重与关注,它既能够对自我价值加以肯定,也能够对自我身份加以确认,它将满足个体的自信与认同的社会心理需求。因此,我们可以将互惠理解为一种社会性的互爱,它指向一种认同的双向建构。就民族和国家而言,民族对国家之爱即为爱国主义的质朴表达,它是民族之国家认同的感性表达与呈现;国家对民族之爱则是国家对民族的关注与尊重,它是国家对民族认同的理性应答与确认。回族虽然是一个个案,但是它却是多元一体格局下民族与国家互惠认同存在的缩影。在更大的空间范围内来看,各民族的民族认同将在中华民族这一最为广阈的“领域边界”内共铸为一体化的强韧的国家认同和中华民族共同体认同,由此,多民族国家的民族认同与国家认同之间形成了共生、互补和互惠关系。习近平总书记所提出的“五个认同”实际上便是各民族的国家认同在五个维度上展现出的区辨与演绎,各民族以本民族文化自觉为基调的民族认同和以国家认同为基轴的“五个认同”之间都可以实现互动互嵌、共生互惠。中国这样一个统一的多民族国家中民族与国家之互惠认同的存在,可以成为我们用以反思近代以来基于单一民族国家认同之上的西方民族主义话语体系局限性的“地方性知识”。
Other AbstractThe paper takes the society of the Huizu during the Anti-Japanese War Period as the case study. As the national state, western powers caved up China by right of their gunboats, and made china transform from danasty to the republic of China. Under the macro historical context and the comparision between the “National Relationship of the period of War of Resistance Against Japan and China’s Anti-Japanese” and “the Conspiracy of China-Chinese Huizu←→Japan-Japanese ‘Chinese Muslim countries”, the paper focuses on the Huizu how to express and practice the “Mutual Recognition” of multinational country by the way of national culture consciousness in the indentity of national-country. Through the case study, the paper attempts to propose the theory and analysis frame about “Mutual Recognition” for a multinational country. After the Anti-Japanese War Period broke out, the Huizu and other nationalities worked together to save the country, united as one, fight the invading army and saved the nation; the Japan invader attempted to make the national splittisim in China, uniliteral adovated and stressed on the ethnic indentity of the Huizu, incited the nationalist sentiment, and attempted to deconstruct the national identity, in order to realize the conspiracy of constructing the “Muslim countries” puppet regime; the national government feared in Japan’s conspiracy by the use of nationalist to dismember China, did not admit the Huizu as the sigle nationality, strengthened the national identity of the Huizu or prevented their ethnic identity; Chinese Communist Party insisted that the Huizu is the single Minzu in Chinese history, encouraged the Huizu to promote the patriotism spirit, activitely worked in the war of resistance. Faced with such complexed situation, the Huizu can consciousnessly express and practice the national and ethnic identity, fight agaist Japan’s conspiracy of “Muslin Work” and “Muslin Country”. There is strong relationship between national identity and ethnic identity for the Huizu. In the terms of the internal structure, the Huizu forms the symbiosis, reciprocity, complementary and mutually beneficial relationship paradigm in ethnic identity and national identity, their construct and reconstruct process is a benignent and beneficial complement for another one; meanwhile, the ethnic identity and national identity of the Huizu’s identity has the characteristics of linkage complement each other in external express and practice. In order to highlight the special interaction paradigm between ethnic identity and national identity of the Huizu, the paper express it as “Ethnic and National Identity” of the Huizu, and name the ethnic identity and national identity under the relation paradigm as the mutual recognition of multinational country. Although the Huizu is just a case, it is the epitome of the mutual recognition of the nation and the state under the pattern of pluralistic integration. The existence of mutual recognition in China, a unified multi-ethnic country, can be used as a “local knowledge” to reflect on Western nationalism.
Pages268
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/341304
Collection历史文化学院
Affiliation历史文化学院
First Author AffilicationSchool of History and Culture
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
柴亚林. 多元一体格局中的民族与国家之互惠认同研究:以抗日战争时期的回族为例[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2019.
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