兰州大学机构库 >历史文化学院
大拱北:一个苏非宗派的中国化社会实践
Alternative Titlethe grand shrine: a study on the social practice of a localized sufi order in china
马文奎
Thesis Advisor周传斌
2019-07-01
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline马克思主义民族理论与政策
Keyword大拱北 苏非宗派 伊斯兰教中国化 社会实践
Abstract20世纪50年代,中国共产党提出了中国宗教具有群众性、国际性、复杂性、长期性和民族性的基本特征,这是马克思主义和中国国情结合的科学概括。民族与宗教有关联也有区别,有的民族在形成和发展过程中宗教起着重要作用,是中国共产党在长期的实践中总结的历史经验,是中国共产党正确处理民族宗教问题、制定民族宗教政策的重要理论依据。十九大以来,学界响应党和政府“铸牢中华民族共同体意识”“坚持我国宗教的中国化方向”的号召,开展了一系列相关研究,旨在阐述民族、宗教中国化和中华民族命运共同体意识之间的互动关系。本文正是在这一时代背景下,将隶属于中国伊斯兰教嘎徳忍耶道统的大拱北宗派作为研究对象,以马克思主义民族观、马克思主义宗教观和历史唯物主义为指导,结合历史人类学、象征人类学和社会实践理论,从大拱北宗派的发轫、建筑、叙事、仪式、修行和理念六个方面客观地呈现大拱北宗派在不同历史时期的社会实践活动,检视伊斯兰教中国化社会实践并服务于铸牢中华民族共同体意识的时代号召。 本文所研究的大拱北宗派是清康熙年间在中国西部地区产生的一个本土苏非宗派,从其创立之初,就开展了长期、多维和深入的中国化社会实践,其后继者始终坚守中国传统文化这一主线,并根据时代潮流以多种途径向中央政权表达了认同和维护,这为当下党和国家领导人强调的“宗教工作重点在导”提供了具体的案例支撑。第一章:对苏非行知的起源、发展和传布做了介绍,通过有关史料勾勒出元、明、清时期苏非修士在华的活动,着重对大拱北宗派的形成和定型做了论述。第二章:从建筑的分类、空间布局和砖雕艺术三个方面提出大拱北宗派“回道对话”的跨宗教对话理念。第三章:从祈雨传说、清代碑匾、宗派文献三个方面凝练出大拱北宗派超越族教的公共事务参与、“矢忠报国,正己率人”的爱国主张和“反求诸己”的社会适应策略。第四章:在集体仪式和个体仪式的解读中,进一步呈现了大拱北宗派对回道对话宗教主张的实践和以“遵正朔”的方式向清廷表示顺服。第五章:由于大拱北宗派秉持回道对话的跨宗教对话理念,因此大拱北宗派开创了中国伊斯兰教出家修行这一极具本土特色修行方式。本部分内容,着重论述大拱北宗派在诠释出家修行时伊道汇通的理论站位,并进一步借鉴和引入了佛、道教出家人管理中的“清规”概念。大拱北宗派为保障清规的有效执行,在不同地区根据国家法令再生产了大会、四头和孝义会三种出家人监管机构,搭建起平行线型的宗派事务管理架构,最终实现了宗教事务和世俗事务管理的分离与分权,减少了围绕宗教和世俗事务管理产生的不和谐因素。第六章:以基于史实基础上的民间传说为切入点,讨论了大拱北宗派的跨宗教对话理念和超越族教的国家认同理念。前者尤以大拱北宗派后裔与清代全真道龙门派宗师刘一明的接触为切入,从哲学和修行的角度呈现出大拱北宗派回道对话的理念和成果。超越族教的国家认同则以大拱北宗派中流传的“三出中原”传说为主线,该传说将华夏始祖大禹追溯为宗派远祖表达了自身对于华夏文明的高度认同;同时借用榆巴巴拱北清初护城的传说,在同治回民事变的历史背景下,将大拱北宗派化身为民间忠义神明的继承人和坚定追随者,表达出自身对于“矢忠报国,正己率人”的坚守和超越族教的国家认同。通过上述分析,本文认为大拱北宗派作为一个中国本土产生的苏非宗派,以多种途径呈现了其“矢忠报国,正己率人”和“回道对话,殊途同归”的中国化社会实践理念。文章最后结合党和国家领导人对宗教工作关键在“导”论述和“在对历史的深入思考中汲取智慧”的讲话精神,以历史作为文化资本并将之投放在中国特色社会主义社会的场域中,在作为生存心态的惯习作用下开展文化再生产实践。当下,中央政府倡导的“铸牢中华民族共同体意识”“坚持我国宗教的中国化方向”恰恰是指民族和宗教在社会主义社会场域下开展的一种文化再生产实践。
Other AbstractIn the 1950s, the Chinese Communist Party proposed the basic characteristics of Chinese religion with mass, internationality, complexity, long-term and nationality. This is a scientific summary of the combination of Marxism and China's national conditions. It is also an important theoretical basis for the Chinese Communist Party to correctly handle religious issues and formulate religious policies. Ethnicity and religion are related but different. In the process of formation and development of some ethnic groups, religion plays an important role, this is the historical experience summarized by the Communist Party of China during its long-term practice. Since the 19th National Congress, the academic circles responded to the call of the communist party and the government's sinicization of religion, carried out a series of studies about it, aims to explain the interaction between religion, the nation and the community with a shared future of China. In the context of this era, this dissertation took the Qādiriyya Grand Shrine order as the research object, whilst guided by the Marxist national outlook, the Marxist religious outlook and historical materialism, combined with the theory of historical anthropology, symbolic anthropology and social practice, the social practice and sinicization of Islam was examined from the six aspects of the development, architecture, narrative, ritual, practice and concept of the Grand Shrine order. Attempts to present the social practice activities of the Grand Shrine sects from different historical periods in a comprehensive and objective manner. The Grand Shrine sect studied in this paper is a native Sufi sect in the western part of China during the Kangxi reign of the Qing Dynasty. Since its inception, it has carried out long-term, multi-dimensional and in-depth sinicization social practice. Its successors have always adhered to the main line of traditional Chinese culture, expressed their recognition and maintenance to the central government in various ways according to the trend of the times. This provides concrete case support for the “Religious Work Focus” emphasized by the current party and state leaders.Chapter 1: Introduced the origin, development and dissemination of Sufism. Through the relevant historical records, the activities of the Sufi monks in China during the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties were outlined, and the formation and stereotypes of the Grand Shrine sects were emphasized. Chapter 2: From the three aspects of the classification, spatial layout and brick carving art of the building, the concept of cross-religious dialogue of the Grand Shrine sect`s “Hui-Taoism Dialogue” was put forward. Chapter 3: From the three aspects of the “Rain Praying Legend”, the tablets of Qing dynasty, as well as the sectarian literature, the public affairs of the Grand Shrine sects, the patriotic claims of “Loyal to the country, lead others”, and the social adaptation strategy “Know then thyself” were conceived. Chapter 4: From the interpretation of collective rituals and individual rituals, the practice of the Grand Shrine sects on the religious ideas of the “Hui-Taoism Dialogue” was further presented and the obedience was expressed to the Qing court in the way of “comply and correct”. Chapter 5: Owing to the Grand Shrine sectarians adhered to the concept of cross-religious dialogue in the “Hui-Taoism Dialogue”, the Grand Shrine sects pioneered the practice in Chinese Islamism way. This part of the content focuses on the theoretical position of the Grand Shrine sect in the interpretation of the practice of interflow between Islam and Taoism, and further draws on and introduces the concept of “Stipulation” in the management of Buddhism and Taoism. In order to ensure the effective implementation of the stipulations, the Grand Shrine sects reproduced three types of family supervision institutions in different regions, including the “General Assembly”, the “Four Heads” and the “Filial Piety Organization ”, and established a parallel-line religious and secular affairs management structure. The separation and decentralization of religious affairs and secular affairs management was finally realized, which reduced the disharmony factors surrounding the management of religious and secular affairs. Chapter 6: Based on the folklore of historical facts, the concept of cross-religious dialogue and the concept of national identity transcending nationality and religion were discussed. The former took the contact between the descendants of the Grand Shrine sect and the sect of the Quanzhen Taoist Liu Yiming in Qing Dynasty as the starting point, presented the concept and achievements of the Grand Shrine sectarian dialogue from the perspective of philosophy and practice. The national identity is based on the legend of the “Three out of the Central Plains” circulated in the Grand Shrine sect. The legend traces their ancestor to the Chinese ancestors to express their recognition of the Chinese civilization. At the same time, borrowing the Yubaba Grand Shrine legend of guarding city in the historical background of the civil war in Tongzhi era of early Qing Dynasty, the Grand Shrine sect was transformed into the staunch follower of the folk loyalty god, expressing their adherence to the national identity of “Loyal to the country, lead others”.Through the above analysis, this dissertation believes that the Grand Shrine sects, as a Sufism sect of China, have presented their Chinese social practices in a variety of ways, such as “Loyal to the country, lead others”, and “Hui-Taoism Dialogue, converge ”. In the end, this dissertation combines the spirit of the party and state leaders' speeches on the key to religious work in the “Guide” and “In the Deep Thinking of History”. Further analysis of the necessity of ethnological research on the development history of specific sects. Use history as a cultural capital and put it in the field of socialist society with Chinese characteristics. Social practice of cultural reproduction under the habit of living habits. At present, the “Sinicization of Religion” advocated by the central government is precisely such a social practice of cultural reproduction.
Pages325
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/341743
Collection历史文化学院
Affiliation民族学研究院
First Author AffilicationSchool of History and Culture
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
马文奎. 大拱北:一个苏非宗派的中国化社会实践[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2019.
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