兰州大学机构库 >资源环境学院
青藏高原史前狩猎采集人群的生存策略——151遗址动物群埋藏学和动物考古学研究
Alternative TitleSUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES OF PREHISTORIC HUNTER-GETHERERS ON THE TIBETAN PLATEAU: TAPHONOMIC AND ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDIES OT THE FAUNAL REMAINS FROM THE 151 SITE
王建
Thesis Advisor安成邦 ; 张东菊
2019-12-10
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword青藏高原 旧石器-中石器时代 151遗址 埋藏学 动物考古学 普氏原羚 季节性利用 资源强化利用
Abstract青藏高原由于极端和特殊的地理环境,在史前人地关系研究中具有重要意义,特别是对于理解人类适应高海拔环境尤为重要。目前,最新的考古研究不断地刷新人们对于史前人类在青藏高原活动历史的认识,如尼阿底遗址揭示了现代人在距今4~3万年前的末次冰期已经能够在4600 masl的高原腹地活动;夏河丹尼索瓦人至少在距今16万年前的倒数第二次冰期已经生活在青藏高原东北部。这两项研究不仅极大地向前推进了史前人类在青藏高原活动的历史,而且也为研究早期人类适应高寒缺氧环境提供了更广阔的空间。农牧经济直到全新世中晚期才出现在青藏高原上,此前在高原上活动的古人类长期依赖狩猎采集野生动植物资源为生。然而,青藏高原上旧石器-中石器时代的考古遗址数量相对较少,且大多缺乏埋藏地层和动植物遗存,极大限制了我们对青藏高原史前狩猎采集人群生存策略的认识。151遗址位于青海湖南岸,在2014年度考古发掘中出土了丰富的考古遗存,特别是大量的动物骨骼遗存,为研究古人类的生业模式提供了重要材料。本文通过动物群埋藏学和动物考古学方法,包括动物种属组成、骨骼表面痕迹、骨骼单元分布、死亡年龄分布和死亡季节、动物组合破碎程度以及未烧骨骼的brGDGTs含量,对151遗址动物骨骼遗存进行了系统地分析,尝试重建151遗址动物群的埋藏学过程,试图阐释史前狩猎采集人群的狩猎策略及其对猎物的搬运、加工和消费等行为,进而对青藏高原上史前狩猎采集人群的生存策略进行深入地分析和探讨。AMS 14C测年结果表明,151遗址上、下文化层的年代范围分别为9000~6400 cal yr BP和15400~13100 cal yr BP,分别处于全新世早中期和末次冰消期。151遗址考古遗存以打制石器和野生动植物遗存为主,几乎未出土陶器、磨制石器和驯化动植物等典型的新石器文化遗存,因此确定151遗址为一处旧石器—中石器时代的狩猎采集人群遗址。动物群埋藏学分析表明,早、晚两期动物骨骼都是古人类聚集的结果。虽然,在下文化层中存在一定的流水作用次要改造。沉积后作用对动物组合形成,特别是骨骼破碎程度几乎没有产生影响。 151遗址动物组合分析表明,史前狩猎采集人群从在末次冰消期的“随机”狩猎野牛和野马/野驴大型有蹄类动物转变成在全新世早中期对普氏原羚的“专门化”狩猎,但都未发生以小动物为主的“广谱革命”。动物骨骼单元分布研究表明,早、晚两期狩猎采集者都选择把大中型有蹄类动物(野牛、野马/野驴和马鹿)的上部肢骨、中部肢骨、头骨和躯干骨(肋骨和椎骨)等营养价值较高的身体部位搬运回遗址;而对于普氏原羚,在全新世早中期的狩猎采集者则选择将猎物整体搬运回遗址。此外,动物骨骼单元分布结合遗物和遗迹现象综合分析显示,151遗址在末次冰消期(下文化层)和全新世早中期(上文化层)都是古人类的居住型遗址。其中,下文化层由一个单独火塘遗迹及其周围灰烬区散布的动物骨骼、石制品等考古遗存组成,显示为人口规模非常有限(可能以家庭为单位)的狩猎采集者短期生活营地;而考古遗存丰富、地层堆积较厚的上文化层,则是具有一定人口规模的狩猎采集人群长期利用的中心营地型居住遗址。动物骨骼破碎模式和动物骨骼表面人工痕迹,表明古人类在151遗址对猎物进行了肢解、剔肉、切割、敲骨吸髓和烧烤等一系列地处理和消费行为。此外,动物组合破碎程度和未烧骨骼的brGDGTs含量分析表明,青藏高原上史前狩猎采集人群除了利用较易获得的骨髓资源之外,还利用更难获得的骨骼中油脂,以适应高原上高能量消耗的需求和应对资源匮乏困难时期(如冬季)的食物需要。普氏原羚死亡年龄分析表明,在全新世早中期狩猎采集人群的狩猎压力对普氏原羚种群延续没有明显影响,这反映出古人类对普氏原羚的“可持续的”狩猎策略。普氏原羚幼年个体死亡季节表明,全新世早中期狩猎采集人群主要在夏初冬季节活动在青海湖盆地。也就是说,直到相对暖湿的全新世中期,古人类依然季节性的在高低海拔间采取后勤式的迁徙策略来应对高寒的青藏高原环境。本文是对青藏高原史前狩猎采集人群生存模式首次系统地分析和阐释,揭示出在动植物资源相对单调和匮乏、人类活动消耗较高能量的高海拔环境中,狩猎采集人群灵活调整生存策略,尤其在全新世早中期总体人口规模明显增加的前提下,发展出对普氏原羚“可持续的”专门化狩猎、季节性和强化利用猎物个体资源的特殊生业模式,极大地推进了对史前狩猎采集人群向青藏高原扩散和对高海拔环境适应的认识和理解。同时,本文也是动物群埋藏学和动物考古学在青藏高原乃至中国旧石器考古研究中的有益尝试,为深入认识和理解史前狩猎采集人群适应高海拔生存环境等学术界广泛关注的科学问题提供了关键材料和重要信息。
Other AbstractThe Tibetan Plateau (hereafter TP) is important to understand prehistoric human-environment interactions in extreme environments, especially prehistoric human adaptation strategies to high altitude environments. Our understanding of prehistoric human history on the plateau has been greatly improved recently by several new studies. Studies of Nwya Devu site in central TP reveal that Modern Humans occupied the plateau nearly 4600 meters above sea level (masl) at 40-30 thousand years before present (kyr BP) during the Last Glacial Period (76-11.7 kyr BP). Xiahe mandible found on the northeastern TP suggests that Denisovans or a Denisovan-related population had occupied the TP at least 160 kyr BP during the Penultimate Glacial Period (190-130 kyr BP). These two studies not only greatly extend human history of the plateau, but also provide wider space for studies of early human adaptation to high altitude environments. Nevertheless, without either associated or systematically analyzed fauna and flora remains in known Paleolithic-Epipaleolithic sites on the TP, including Nwya Devu site and Xiahe mandible, we know very little about subsistence strategies of prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the plateau.  In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the faunal remains from the Upper and Lower Cultural Layer (hereafter UCL and LCL, respectively) of the 151 site in the southern Qinghai Lake Basin, which was excavated in 2014. Through systematic faunal taphonomic and zooarchaeological analysis of the faunal assemblages, including bone assemblages, bone-surface modifications, frequencies of skeletal parts, mortality profiles, death seasonality, faunal fragmentation patterns and unburned bone’s brGDGTs, we attempt to reconstruct the sedimentary history of the faunal assemblages, and to explain the hunting strategy of prehistoric hunter-gatherers and prey transportation, processing and consumption. Finally, the subsistence strategy of the prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the TP is interpreted.The dating results and archaeological remains of the 151 site show that it was occupied by Late Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic hunter-gatherers during 15400-13100 cal yr BP for LCL and 9000-6400 cal yr BP for UCL, respectively. Faunal taphonomic analysis of the 151 site shows that bone assemblages were resulted from human activities, though weak secondary fluvial transportation has been observed in the LCL. Post-depositional process didn’t effect the formation of the faunal assemblages, especially the degree of faunal fragmentation.  The bone assemblages of the 151 site show that the prehistoric hunter-gatherers in the Qinghai Lake Basin shifted their main hunting strategy from random-hunting of large mammals (Bos sp. and Equus sp.) in the LCL to specialized-hunting of Przewalski’s gazelles (Procapra Przewalskii) in the UCL. However, "Broad Spectrum Revolution", which means faunal assemblages change to be dominated by small animals, didn’t happen in the 151 site. Analysis of skeletal parts composition shows that hunter-gatherers from both of the two epochs brought back the most nutritious body parts, including upper and intermediate limb bones, heads, and trunks (ribs and vertebral column) for large-medium ungulates (Bos sp., Equus sp. and Cervus elaphus) back to the 151 site. While only in the early-mid Holocene, hunter-gatherers transported the whole bodies of the Przewalski’s gazelles back. In addition, comprehensive analyses of the frequencies of skeletal parts and other remains in the site, such as stone artifacts, burned bones, and burning activity remains, show that the 151 site was used as a residential site during both of these two periods. The LCL was composed of a single hearth, indicating that the camp was occupied shortly by a relatively small group of hunter-gatherers, probably only of family size.  The rich archaeological remains and thicker cultural deposits in the UCL indicate that 151 site became a regional base camp for relatively long occupations by larger groups of hunter-gatherers in early-middle Holocene.Bone fragmentation patterns and artifical marks on bone surfaces indicate that prehistoric hunter-gatherers in the 151 site had applied a series of treatment and consumption activities on their prey, such as dismemberment, filleting, skinning, knocking and burning, and so on. In addition, analyses of faunal fragmentation and unburned bone’s brGDGTs show that prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the TP not only exploited bone marrow, which is easier to obtain, but also extracted bone grease, which is difficult to access, in order to meet the high energy demands for living in cold and high altitude environments.Mortality profiles of Przewalski's gazelles in the UCL show that hunting pressure for early-middle Holocene hunter-gatherers didn’t influence gazelles' population growth, which means that a sustainable hunting strategy was used by hunter-gatherers to hunt Przewalski's gazelles. Death season analysis of young individuals of Przewalski's gazelles indicates that hunter-gatherers' occupations in the Qinghai Lake Basin remained to be seasonal occupations (summer-early winter) even as late as to relatively warm and humid middle Holocene. It shows that prehistoric hunter-gatherers still adopted a seasonal migration strategy between high and low altitude regions in northeastern TP until the middle Holocene, to adapt to the alpine environments of the TP and food needs in times of scarcity, such as winter.This paper is the first systematic analysis and interpretation of the subsistence strategies of prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the TP. It reveals the flexible subsistence strategies of hunter-gatherers in high-altitude environments where resources are monotonous and scarce. Resources exploitation intensity became more intence especially in the early-mid Holocene for the increase of population on the TP. They developed unique subsistence strategies to adapt to the harsh environment on the TP, including specialized Przewalski's gazelle-hunting, resource intensification and seasonal occupations on the TP. From these analyses, our understanding of the spread of prehistoric hunter-gatherers to the TP and human adaptation strategies to the high-altitude environments is greatly promoted. Meanwhile, this study is also a useful attempt in faunal taphonomy and zooarchaeology studies on the TP, and also in the study of Paleolithic-Epipaleolithic archaeology in China. It also provides critical materials and important information for our understanding of prehistoric hunter-gatherers' adaptations to high-altitude environments.
Pages186
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/344202
Collection资源环境学院
Affiliation资源环境学院
First Author AffilicationCollege of Earth Environmental Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王建. 青藏高原史前狩猎采集人群的生存策略——151遗址动物群埋藏学和动物考古学研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2019.
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