兰州大学机构库 >资源环境学院
丝绸之路甘肃-新疆段沿线城市大气气溶胶物化性质研究
Alternative TitleStudy on physical and chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols along the Silk Road in Gansu and Xinjiang
马珊
Thesis Advisor夏敦胜
2019-03-20
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword丝绸之路甘肃-新疆 气溶胶 水溶性离子 粒径 来源
Abstract随着社会经济的快速发展以及人民生活水平的迅速提高,人们赖以生存的大气环境也随之发生变化,其污染问题已经引起广泛关注,持续恶化的空气质量会对人们的身心健康产生极大的威胁。陆上丝绸之路为古代中国与各国间的物产传输和文化交流做出了极大贡献,基于该区域的区位和资源储备等先天条件,发展势头大好,相关国家提出一系列战略构想,我国也提出“丝绸之路经济带”的构想,对该区域开展气溶胶观测可以对沿线城市的大气环境状况有初步了解,对改善沿线居民的生活环境质量,配合经济发展战略合理制定空气污染预防、整治政策提供科学依据。本论文通过对丝绸之路甘肃-新疆段沿线部分城市(包括兰州、金昌、玉门、哈密、乌鲁木齐、克拉玛依、阿勒泰)进行野外观测采样,基于气溶胶的理化特性,对各个采样点大气气溶胶的理化特征、日变化及季节变化、形成机制和传输路径进行了分析讨论,得到以下初步结论:(1)丝绸之路甘肃-新疆段沿线主要城市春季大气环境中颗粒物污染主要以PM10为主,其大气颗粒物浓度随着粒径的变小而减小。按地貌单元将采样点划分为三大区域:河西走廊地区、天山地区和阿勒泰地区,受局地地质环境和风向的影响,颗粒物浓度从东南向西北递减。多数市区由于日间人类活动较多所以日间浓度大于夜间浓度,哈密、乌鲁木齐日间浓度低于夜间浓度。(2)水溶性离子能够反映自然背景下工业化和经济发展水平对局地大气环境的影响。金昌市PM10和PM1中水溶性离子浓度最高,以Ca2+、SO42-和Cl-为主,乌鲁木齐市PM2.5中水溶性离子浓度最高,以SO42-、NO3-为主,其它采样点大气环境中主要离子是Ca2+和Na+,表明乌鲁木齐人为污染严重,污染富集在细粒段,金昌和玉门自然和人为污染并重,其它采样区域受自然影响为主。(3)兰州市市区大气污染主要是颗粒物污染(PM10)和气体污染(O3、NO2),整体环境质量郊区优于市区。六种污染物年变化趋势均呈“U”型,对于日内变化来说,PM10和PM2.5呈双峰型,O3呈单峰型,NO2和SO2城郊峰谷不一致。春季污染源主要是内蒙和甘肃,夏季污染源集中在甘肃省东部,秋季PM10污染源与内蒙、甘肃境内沙漠分布一致,NO2污染以兰州市为中心向外减小,冬季污染源集中在兰州和白银两市。(4)兰州市气溶胶中主要离子成分是NO3-、SO42-、Ca2+、NH4+,冬季离子浓度最高,NO3-是冬季占比最高的离子,其它季节均为Ca2+。兰州市SO2的转化率高于NO2,SOR和相对湿度的变化趋势一致,NOR与温度的变化趋势相反。市区人为源污染物以固定源为主,移动源的贡献逐年升高,粒径分析表明兰州市应加强对可吸入颗粒物的管控与防治,同时也要关注粗颗粒物对大气环境的影响。
Other AbstractWith the rapid development of social economy and people's living standards, the atmospheric environment is undergoing fundamental changes. Pollution problem has aroused the great concern of the governments all over the world. In ancient time, the land Silk Road made an important contribution to the transmission of property and cultural exchanges between China and other countries. The areas along the Silk Road have important geographical advantages, abundant natural resources and broad prospects for development, the relevent countries have put forward strategic ideas aimed at this region in recent years, and China has also put forward the concept of the "Silk Road Economic Belt". The observation of atmospheric aerosols in this area can understand the atmospheric environment of the major cities and improve the living environment quality of the residents along the route. More importantly, the research can provide scientific basis for improving the quality of living environment of the residents in these areas and formulating the policies of air pollution prevention and remediation in line with the economic development strategy. In this paper, the main cities and counties along the Silk Road (including Lanzhou, Jinchang, Yumen, Hami, Urumqi, Karamay, Altai) were observed and sampled. Based on the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols, the characteristics of physical and chemical, diurnal and seasonal variations, formation mechanism and transmission path of atmospheric aerosols are analyzed and discussed. We find the following points: (1)In spring air pollution of main cities along the Silk Road was dominated by PM10, and the concentration of particulate matter decreased with the decrease of particle size. According to the geomorphologic unit, the sampling sites are divided into three areas: Hexi Corridor area, Tianshan area and Altai area, under the influence of local geological environment and wind direction, the concentration of particulate matter decreases from southeast to northwest. In most urban areas, daytime concentrations were greater than night concentrations due to daytime human activity, but the daytime concentrations in Hami and Urumqi were lower than night. (2)Water-soluble ions can reflect the influence of industrialization and economic development level on the local atmospheric environment under the natural background. The concentration of water-soluble ions in Jinchang was the highest in PM10 and PM1, mainly Ca2+, SO42-and Cl-. The concentration of water-soluble ions in Urumqi was the highest in PM2.5, mainly SO42-and NO3-. The main ions in atmospheric environment of other sampling points were Ca2+ and Na+. The results show that the artificial pollution in Urumqi is serious and the pollution is enriched in fine grains, Jinchang and Yumen are affected by both natural and man-made factors, and other sampling areas are mainly influenced by nature factor.(3)The air pollution in Lanzhou city is mainly particulate matter pollution (PM10) and gas pollution (O3, NO2). The environmental quality in suburb is better than urban. The annual variation trend of six pollutants is "U" type. For the intradiurnal variation trend, PM10 and PM2.5 are double peaks and O3 are single peaks. In spring the pollution sources are mainly Inner Mongolia and Gansu. In summer the pollution source is concentrated in the eastern part of Gansu province. In autumn the pollution source of PM10 is consistent with desert distribution in Mongolia and Gansu, the source of NO2 decreases gradually with Lanzhou as the center. In winter, the pollution sources concentrated in Lanzhou and Baiyin.     (4)The main ionic components of aerosol in Lanzhou is NO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, NH4+. The highest concentration of ions occurs in winter. NO3- is the most important ion in winter, and the other seasons are Ca2+. Through the study of secondary ion transformation, it is found that the conversion rate of SO2 is higher than NO2, the variation trend of SOR is similar with relative humidity, and the variation trend of NOR is opposite to temperature. Stationary source is the main source of man-made pollutants in Lanzhou city, and the contribution of mobile source is higher than other cities. The analysis indicates that Lanzhou should strengthen the control and prevention of inhalable particulate matter, and pay attention to the influence of coarse particulate matter on the atmospheric environment.
Pages66
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/344350
Collection资源环境学院
Affiliation资源环境学院
First Author AffilicationCollege of Earth Environmental Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
马珊. 丝绸之路甘肃-新疆段沿线城市大气气溶胶物化性质研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2019.
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Altmetrics Score
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[马珊]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[马珊]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[马珊]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
No comment.
Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.