兰州大学机构库 >生命科学学院
田间微集雨技术研究及应用
Alternative TitleDevelopment and application of micro-field rain-harvesting technologies
莫非; 周宏; 王建永; 赵鸿; 张恒嘉; 吴姗; 陈应龙; 杨通; 邓浩亮; Asfa Batool; 王润元; Simon Nzou Nguluu; 李凤民; 熊友才; Xiong, Y. (xiongyc@lzu.edu.cn)
2013-04-15
Source Publication农业工程学报   Impact Factor & Quartile
ISSN1002-6819
Volume29Issue:8Pages:1-17
Abstract过去30a,田间微集雨技术逐渐发展成为黄土高原雨养农业区的主要耕作技术。自上世纪八十年代以来,不同田间微集雨及覆盖(地膜、砂石和秸秆)栽培技术在黄土高原不断更新换代,先后经历了垄沟无覆盖技术、平地覆盖技术、垄沟半覆盖技术和垄沟全覆盖技术等发展过程,特别是沟垄地膜全覆盖技术大面积推广和应用,为西北旱区粮食单产大幅度提高提供了强大的支撑作用。本文综述了田间微集雨技术的演变历程及对农田生态系统的影响及机理,归纳了垄沟和覆盖模式及播种方式对作物产量形成、水分利用效率、作物生理生态、土壤质量、土壤微生物、杂草、病虫害、覆盖物残留和作物物候等的影响,并分析了该技术的高产高效和生态风险以及两者的互作关系。文...
Other AbstractIn the typical rainfed agricultural regions of China such as the Loess Plateau, average annual rainfall ranges from 300 to 550 mm. Spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall is extremely uneven and there is a serious dislocation between water supply and demand during critical period of crop water requirement. Developing efficient rain-harvesting farming technology is critical for local food production. Over last three decades, micro-field rain-harvesting and evaporation-preventing techniques have gradually become major tillage management approaches in rainfed agricultural areas of the Loess Plateau. Since 1980s, various micro-field rainwater-harvesting techniques have been developed with integrating mulching (film, gravel or straw) practices in the Loess Plateau. These techniques include ridge-furrow cultivation with half, whole or without mulching, and flat planting with mulching. Especially, large-area extension and application of the techniques for ridge and furrow with whole plastic mulching has played a vital supporting role to ensure the increase in grain yield per unit area in a large extent in dry areas of northwest China. Currently, this farming technique was widely recognized as an optimal pattern of micro-field rain-harvesting technology. In general, micro-field rainwater-harvesting mulching technology was designed as alternating furrow and ridge array with partly or fully mulching on the topsoil. The ridge and the furrow were used to harvest and collect runoff, respectively, and crop was planted in the furrow. This paper reviewed the evolution process of micro-field rain-harvesting and evaporation techniques and their influences on farmland ecosystem. We also summarized the effects of ridge-furrow mulching modes and sowing methods on crop yield formation, water use efficiency, crop ecophysiology, soil quality, soil microbial, weeds, plant diseases and insect pests, mulching residues and crop phenology. In addition, enhanced productivity and efficiency, potential ecological risks of these techniques and their interactions were analyzed. As for design of ridge and furrow specification, the width ratio between ridge and furrow varied from crop type, rainfall amount to air temperature. In most areas of the Loess Plateau, the optimal width ratios between ridge and furrow were 60 cm: 40 cm and 60 cm: 60 cm for potato and corn, respectively, to achieve the greatest grain yield. Among a variety of mulching materials, plastic film was the most widely used, mainly because it displayed the advantages in evaporation prevention, yield improvement and low price. Existing studies showed that plastic mulching would increase soil surface temperature and lead to better performance in grain yield and dry matter accumulation particularly in those areas with high elevation and low accumulated temperature. In the areas with annual air temperature accumulation of less than 5°C, grain yield of plastic-mulched corn was up to 11 times more in comparison with that of traditional flat planting system. In addition, this technique increased the residues of root system in soil, and accordingly enhanced population sizes and biological activities of soil bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, crop growth period was shortened by 7-15 days as a result of application of this technology in the Loess Plateau. However, plastic film mulching for years brought about increased plastic residues in soil and accordingly led to soil pollution and related environmental problem. Finally, efficiency, sustainability and developmental potential of these techniques were discussed aiming to provide theoretical guidance for sustainable management of rainfed agricultural ecosystem.
Keyword土壤 含水率 降雨 田间微集雨系统 雨养农业 高产高效 可持续性 Development and applications High productivity Micro-field rain-harvesting system Plant diseases and insect pests Potential ecological risk Rain fed agriculture Soil surface temperatures Spatial and temporal distribution
Subject AreaAgricultural Products ; Engineering Profession ; Impact Of Technology On Society ; Agricultural Methods ; Production Engineering ; Mathematical Statistics ; Social Sciences ; Optimization Techniques ; Polymer Products ; Precipitation ; Water Supply Systems ; Ecology And Ecosystems ; Atmospheric Properties ; Biology ; Physical Chemistry ; Chemical Operations ; Soils And Soil Mechanics
PublisherChinese Society of Agricultural Engineering
DOI10.3969/j.issn.1002-6819.2013.08.001
Publication PlaceBeijing
Indexed ByEI ; CSCD
Language中文
First Inst
Funding Project国家重点基础研究发展计划以及国家重大科学研究计划(973计划) ; 国家国际科技合作专项 ; 公益性行业科研专项 ; 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金
Host of Journal中国农业工程学会
Project Number国家重大基础研究计划973项目(2009CB825101) ; 国家公益性行业(气象)科研专项子课题(GYHY201106029-2) ; 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目lzujbky-2010-k02) ; 科技部国际科技合作项目(2010DFA32790) ; 教育部直属高校海外名师项目(Ms2011LZDX059)
CSCD IDCSCD:4820728
Funding OrganizationMOST ; MOE ; LZU
SubtypeArticle
EI ID20132016328312
IRIDCNKI:0057109
Department兰州大学生命科学学院干旱农业生态研究所/草地农业生态系统国家重点实验室;
甘肃农业大学工学院;
中国气象局兰州干旱气象研究所;
甘肃省气候变化与减灾重点(开放)实验室;
西澳大学地球与环境学院及农业研究所;
肯尼亚国家农业研究院Katumani研究中心
Citation statistics
Cited Times:63[CSCD]   [CSCD Record]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/157260
Collection生命科学学院
Corresponding AuthorXiong, Y. (xiongyc@lzu.edu.cn)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
莫非,周宏,王建永,等. 田间微集雨技术研究及应用[J]. 农业工程学报,2013,29(8):1-17.
APA 莫非.,周宏.,王建永.,赵鸿.,张恒嘉.,...&Xiong, Y. .(2013).田间微集雨技术研究及应用.农业工程学报,29(8),1-17.
MLA 莫非,et al."田间微集雨技术研究及应用".农业工程学报 29.8(2013):1-17.
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