|Preparation of compound bacterium fertilizer with beneficial rhizobacteria and its fertility investigation in pepper and tomato
|Place of Conferral
|根际有益细菌 复合菌肥 番茄 辣椒 促生作用 品质改善
为迎合农业生产需求，解决粮食供应问题，化肥在我国被大量施用，导致土壤环境遭到不同程度的破坏。微生物肥料因其环保无公害的特点已经受到人们的关注。目前有大量研究表明植物根际有益细菌具有促进植物生长、改善谷物和果蔬品质的作用。荒漠植物梭梭(Haloxylon ammodendron)生长于十分恶劣的环境下，其根际蕴含的大量能适应极端环境的有益细菌有待挖掘。课题组于2014年在甘肃民勤和内蒙古阿拉善右旗采集梭梭不同生长时期的根际土壤，从中分离出众多具有良好促生作用的枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、假单胞菌(Pseudomonas sp.)和根瘤菌(Rhizobium sp.)等，具有研发复合菌肥的潜力。
本研究以从梭梭根际分离到的枯草芽孢杆菌菌株WM13-24、假单胞菌菌株M30-35、根瘤菌菌株WMN-3，商业化的解淀粉芽孢杆菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)菌株GB03和苜蓿中华根瘤菌(Sinorhizobium meliloti)菌株ACCC17578为有益菌株材料生产复合菌肥；使用枯草芽孢杆菌菌株WM13-24生产单株菌肥；以甘肃鸿远生物科技有限公司生产的巧农2号复合微生物肥料为阳性对照；以水和液体LB培养基作为阴性对照。以番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum Miller)和辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)为植物材料评价了复合菌肥的促生和品质改善效果。取得的主要研究结果如下：
1.五株菌（枯草芽孢杆菌菌株WM13-24、假单胞菌菌株M30-35、根瘤菌菌株WMN-3、解淀粉芽孢杆菌菌株GB03和苜蓿中华根瘤菌菌株ACCC17578）之间均不存在相互拮抗作用，具备生产复合菌肥的条件。通过活菌数测定发现，复合菌肥、单株菌肥和巧农2号复合微生物肥料活菌数分别为2250万/mL、5213万/mL和2806万/mL。2. 施用三种菌肥均显著促进了辣椒植株生长，改善了辣椒品质，增加了辣椒产量，以复合菌肥的效果最佳，其显著提高了辣椒株高、茎粗、最大叶长宽、叶绿素含量、产量、果实可溶性蛋白含量、维生素C含量和有机酸含量(P < 0.05)；与巧农2号相比，单株菌肥提高了辣椒茎粗、最大叶宽、产量、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白和有机酸含量。
3. 施用三种菌肥均可显著改善番茄品质，提高番茄产量，以复合菌肥的效果最佳，其显著提高了番茄产量、可溶性糖含量、可溶性蛋白含量、维生素C含量和有机酸含量(P < 0.05)；与巧农2号相比，单株菌肥提高了叶绿素含量、可溶性糖含量、可溶性蛋白含量和维生素C含量。4. 施用三种菌肥均影响了土壤酶活，显著提高了土壤全氮含量，以复合菌肥的效果最好，施用复合菌肥后辣椒、番茄根际土壤过氧化氢酶活性、脲酶活性均得到显著提高，土壤碱性磷酸酶活性则显著降低(P < 0.05)；与参照菌肥巧农2号相比，单株菌肥提高了辣椒和番茄根际土壤过氧化氢酶活性、脲酶活性。
In order to meet the needs of agricultural production and food supply, chemical fertilizers have been widely used in China, causing some extent of soil environmental disruption. Microbial fertilizers have already attracted people’s attention as their environmental friendship. Recently, more and more studies have shown that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are play important roles in promoting plant growth and improving the quality of crop, vegetables and fruits. The desert plant Haloxylon ammodendron has been distributed in harsh desert for long-term, its rhizosphere possess huge number of beneficial bacteria that adapt to extremely environment and worth to be excavated. In 2014, our research group sampled the rhizosphere soils of Haloxylon ammodendron in different growth stages from Minqin county, Gansu province, and Alxa Right Banner, Inner Mongolia province, and we isolated many species of plant growth promotion bacterium strains, including Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas sp. and Rhizobium etc.,with the potential to be used for developing compound bacteria fertilizers.
In this study, Bacillus subtilis strain WM13-24, Pseudomonas sp. M30-35 and Rhizobium strain WMN-3 isolated from H. ammodendron rhizosphere, and commercially used strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciensGB03 and Sinorhizobium meliloti ACCC17578 were used as beneficial bacteria to produce compound bacterium fertilizer; Bacillus subtilis strain WM13-24 was used to produce the fertilizer with single bacterium strain. Qiaonong No.2 compound microbial fertilizer produced by Gansu Dahang Soil Improvement and Management Co., Ltd. was used as a positive control, Water and liquid LB medium were used as negative controls. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) were used to evaluate the three kinds of bacterium fertilizer in growth promotion and quality improvement. The main findings are as follows:
1. There is no mutual antagonism among the five PGPR strains and meet the requirement to produce compound bacterial fertilizer. The number of living bacterium in the compound bacterium fertilizer, single strain bacterium fertilizer and Qiaonong No. 2 compound microbial fertilizer were 22.5 million/mL, 52.13 million/mL and 28.60 million/mL, respectively.
2. Application of three kinds of fertilizer all promoted pepper growth, improved pepper quality and increased pepper yield significantly and the compound bacterium fertilizer has the best effect that enhanced plant height, stem thick, length of largest leaf, width of largest leaf, chlorophyll content, yield, fruit soluble sugar, soluble protein, vitamin C and organic acid content significantly(P < 0.05). Compared to Qiaonong No. 2, single strain bacterium fertilizer enhanced pepper stem thick, width of largest leaf, yield, fruit soluble sugar content, soluble protein content, and organic acid content..
3. Application of three kinds of fertilizer all improved tomato quality and increased yield significantly and the compound bacterium fertilizer has the best effect that promoted the yield, fruit soluble sugar, soluble protein, vitamin C and organic acid content significantly(P < 0.05). Compared to Qiaonong No. 2, single strain bacterium fertilizer enhanced the content of chlorophyll, fruit soluble sugar, soluble protein and vitamin C.
4. Application of three kinds of fertilizer all influenced soil enzyme activity, and significantly enhanced soil total nitrogen content of pepper and tomato, and the compound bacterium fertilizer has the best effect that increased soil catalase enzyme and urease enzyme activity of pepper and tomato significantly, while soil alkaline phosphatase activity was decreased significantly(P < 0.05). Compared to Qiaonong No. 2, single strain bacterium fertilizer increased soil catalase enzyme and soil urease enzyme activity of pepper and tomato.
In summary, bacterium fertilizer containing plant beneficial rhizobacteria significantly promoted economic crops pepper’s growth and enhanced the quality of pepper and tomato. Additionally, inoculating bacterium fertilizer can improve soil enzyme activity in some extent. Among them, the compound bacterium fertilizer with multiple strains of beneficial rhizobacteria was the best. In this paper, the result can provide theoretical foundation for compound bacterium fertilizer using beneficial rhizobacteria in promoting growth and improving fruit quality of other plants. This research laid the foundation for the large-scale application of growth promotion bacteria from desert plant rhizosphere in developing a variety of compound bacterium fertilizers.
|索升州. 利用根际有益细菌制备复合菌肥及其在辣椒和番茄上的肥效研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2018.
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