兰州大学机构库 >生命科学学院
黑顶麻雀婚外配行为及其发生机制
Alternative TitleExtra-pair copulation behavior and mechanism in the Saxaul Sparrow(Passer ammodendri)
樊亚楠
Thesis Advisor包新康
2017-03-15
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword黑顶麻雀 婚外配 优秀基因假说 基因兼容性假说 致育保险假说
Abstract

许多的研究表明,单配制鸟类、特别是小型雀形目鸟类存在很普遍的婚外配现象。黑顶麻雀(Passer ammodendri)是一种社会单配制洞巢鸟类,很可能存在婚外配行为。本文以黑顶麻雀为研究对象,通过对其亲权关系的分析研究,明确其婚外配发生比例,探究其婚外配的发生机制符合优秀基因假说、致育保险假说还是基因兼容性假说,并探讨黑顶麻雀雌性寻求婚外配的影响因素。我们于2014年4月—2014年7月在安西极旱荒漠国家级自然保护区采集到175巢共837个样本,包括186个成鸟和651个雏鸟样本。通过分析研究,得出以下结论:
1. 黑顶麻雀是有婚外配行为的社会单配制鸟类,其中29.71%(52/175)的巢为婚外配巢,11.06%(72/651)的雏鸟为婚外后代。黑顶麻雀的婚外配比例和同属鸟类树麻雀和家麻雀的婚外配比例差异不显著,符合系统关系假说。
2. 黑顶麻雀婚外配发生机制符合优秀基因假说和致育保险假说,不符合基因兼容性假说。
(1)符合优秀基因假说:婚外配巢的繁殖成功参数包括窝卵数、出雏数、出飞数和后代总数等都显著高于非婚外配巢;婚外后代翅长和跗蹠的生长情况包括生长最快日龄和最大生长率均显著高于婚内后代;私生子遗传父的体况指数和黑顶宽显著高于社会父的体况指数和黑顶宽。非婚外配巢雌性嘴峰显著高于婚外配巢雌性。黑顶麻雀嘴峰较短的雌性更可能去寻求婚外配,雌性将雄性的黑顶宽和体况指数作为其优秀基因的特征,倾向于选择质量更好即黑顶更宽、体况指数更高的雄性作为自己的婚外配偶,从而提高自己繁殖成功的可能性和后代的适合度。
(2)符合致育保险假说:婚外配巢内的孵化率、受精卵数和受精率均显著高于非婚外配巢。黑顶麻雀雌性寻求婚外配是为了防止自己社会配偶的不育。
(3)不符合基因兼容性假说:研究表明不论是雌性本身的基因杂合度,还是其社会配偶的基因杂合度都不会影响黑顶麻雀雌性去寻求婚外配,黑顶麻雀雌性寻求婚外配也并不是为了使其后代获得杂合优势。并且社会配偶间的基因相似度并不影响婚外父权的发生,雌性选择婚外配也不依赖于婚外配偶和自身间的基因相似度。此外,亲本间的基因相似度不会影响子代的基因杂合度、婚外后代的数量和比例。综合以上基因杂合度和基因相似度的研究表明黑顶麻雀婚外配不支持基因兼容性假说。黑顶麻雀雌性发生婚外配并不是为了获得互补基因,使自己和雄性间的兼容性达到最大化或者提高后代的杂合度并不适合黑顶麻雀。
3. 黑顶麻雀雌性寻求婚外配受产卵期周围环境平均温度、首枚卵日期和其社会配偶的体况指数等因素的影响,不受巢密度和雄性喉部黑斑大小的影响。
(1)产卵期周围环境平均温度越高,雌性越有可能去寻求婚外配。
(2)首枚卵日期越早,雌性越有可能去寻求婚外配。
(3)雌性社会配偶的体况指数越低,雌性越有可能去寻求婚外配。
(4)黑顶麻雀婚外配的发生和婚外配比例的高低与巢密度无关:婚外配巢与非婚外配巢的巢密度无显著差异,雌性寻求婚外配与巢密度也无显著相关性,婚外后代数和婚外后代比例与巢密度间无显著相关性。
(5)黑顶麻雀婚外配的发生和婚外配比例与雄性喉部黑斑大小无关。黑顶麻雀雄性喉部黑斑大小与黑顶宽和嘴裂均呈显著正相关。但发生婚外配巢雄性喉部黑斑大小和未发生婚外配巢雄性喉部黑斑大小间无显著差异。私生子社会父和遗传父喉部黑斑大小间无显著差异。黑顶麻雀婚外后代的比例与雄性喉部黑斑面积也无显著相关性。

Other Abstract

Monogamy is a general mating system in birds. But extra-pair copulations were found to exist in many monogamy birds, especially in small Passeriformes birds. The Saxaul Sparrow(Passer ammodendri)is a monogamy and cavity-nesting bird species. Based on parenthood identification in the Saxaul Sparrow, we designed to figure out its proportion of extra-pair copulations, clarify the mechanism of extra-pair copulations and disscuss the influence factors of females engaged in EPC. We collected 837 samples from 175 broods at An'xi Extra-arid Desert National Nature Reserve from April to July in 2014. We drawed several conclusions through analyzing the data.
1. The Saxaul Sparrow was a social monogamy bird which had extra-pair copulations behavior. 29.71%(52 of 175)broods had at least one extra-pair offspring, 11.06%(72 of 651)offsprings were extra-pair offsprings. There were no significant difference on proportion of extra-pair copulations between the Saxaul Sparrow,the tree sparrow and the house sparrow. The result supported phylogenetic distribution hypothesis.
2. The mechanism of EPC in the Saxaul Sparrow supported the good genes hypothesis and fertility insurance hypothesis, but didn't support genetic compatibility hypothesis.
(1)Our result supported the good genes hypothesis. Reproduction parameters including clutch size, nestling, fledgling and the number of offsprings in EPC nests were significantly higher than non-EPC nests. Growth state including age of growth fastest and instantaneous maximum growth rate about wing length and tarsus length of EPO were significantly higher than WPO. To extra-pair offsprings, body condition index and maximum breadth of the crown of their genetic father were significantly higher than their social father. Female culmen length in non-EPC nests were significantly higher than EPC nests. It suggested that shorter culmen length females were more likely to engaged in EPC. Female engaged in EPC were more likely to choose males as their extra-pair mate which crown more breadth or body condition index more higher. Thus it could ehhance the possibility of reproductive success of themselves and offsprings fitness.
(2)Our result support fertility insurance hypothesis. Nesting rate, number of fertilized eggs and fertility rate in EPC nests were significantly higher than non-EPC nests. Females engaged in EPC in order to prevent infertility of their social mate.
(3)Our result didn't support genetic compatibility hypothesis. Our result shows that genetic heterozygosity of female and cucked males didn’t affect female to engage in EPC. Female engaged in EPC were not to obtain heterozygosity genes for offsprings. And genetic similarity between social mate didn’t affect the occurance of EPC. Female engaged in EPC didn’t rely on the genetic similarity between extra-pair mate and females. Also, there were no significant correlation between genetic heterozygosity of offsprings, the number of EPO, the rate of EPO and genetic similarity of their parents. Our result didn't support genetic compatibility hypothesis. Females engaged in EPC were not to obtain complementary genes, to maximize compatibility between males and themselves or improve the heterozygosity of offsprings were not suitable for the Saxaul Saprrow.
3. Female engaged in EPC were influenced by ambient temperature during egg production, laying date and male body condition index, but didn't affected by nest density and male badge size.
(1)When ambient temperature during egg production was higher, females were more likely to engaged in EPC.
(2)When laying date was earlier, females were more likely to engaged in EPC.
(3)When male body condition index was lower, females were more likely to engaged in EPC.
(4)Nest density didn’t affect the occurance and proportion of extra-pair copulations in the Saxaul Sparrow. There were no significant difference on nest density between EPC nests and non-EPC nests. Nest density had no significant effect on female engaged in EPC. There were no significant correlation between the number of EPO, rate of EPO and nest density.       
(5)Male badge size didn’t affect the occurance and proportion of extra-pair copulations in the Saxaul Sparrow. Maximum breadth of the crown and rictus length had a significant positive effect on male badge size. There were no significant difference on male badge size between EPC nests and non-EPC nests. To extra-pair offsprings, there were no significant difference on male badge size between social father and genetic father. And there were no significant correlation between rate of extra-pair offsprings and male badge size.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/221247
Collection生命科学学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
樊亚楠. 黑顶麻雀婚外配行为及其发生机制[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2017.
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