兰州大学机构库 >生命科学学院
甘肃盐池湾黑颈鹤繁殖生态学与迁徙研究
Alternative TitleStudy on breeding ecology and migration route of Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) in Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve, Gansu, China
舒美林
Thesis Advisor赵长明 ; 张立勋
2017-04-12
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword黑颈鹤 种群数量 巢址选择 繁殖表现 孵化行为 迁徙路线
Abstract

甘肃盐池湾国家级自然保护区是黑颈鹤(Grus nigricollis)的主要繁殖地之一。2013-2015年,对该保护区内黑颈鹤的繁殖生态进行了系统研究。黑颈鹤最大种群数量稳定在140只左右,其中繁殖鹤40对左右,新个体比例15.7% - 25.8%。研究期间共确定了29个黑颈鹤巢址,其中24个为草垛巢,5个为地面巢。生境类型(湖泊湿地>沼泽湿地>河流湿地),干扰程度(低强度>高强度)和水深(深>浅)是影响黑颈鹤巢址选择的主要因素。29个巢,年均巢存活率65.56 ± 5.09%,年均孵化成功率57.04 ± 6.12%,年均繁殖成功率32.78 ± 2.55 %。巢成功率与水深,水域面积以及巢与岸边的距离正相关,与干扰程度负相关。高原环境中的双亲孵化模式是研究双亲冲突与合作的最佳模型。2014-2015年,通过红外摄像机连续记录的方式对20对黑颈鹤的孵化行为进行了研究。黑颈鹤平均每天总在巢率90.12% (雌鹤45.35%,雄鹤44.77%),平均每个孵化回合时长为2.06 h (雌鹤2.07 h,雄鹤 2.04 h),平均每天的换班频率为10.87次,平均每次换班时长5.05 min。雄鹤换班时长显著高于雌鹤(5.57 min vs 4.65 min,t180 = -46.61, P < 0.001)。黑颈鹤双亲在孵化过程中,当一方投入减少时,另一方会有多种回应(同向减少,部分补偿或完全补偿)。由于生命较长,配偶关系持续久和繁殖力较低的原因,对同伴孵化投入的减少进行补偿是黑颈鹤的主要回应方式,以避免当前繁殖失败。黑颈鹤的这种补偿模式使得双亲孵化任务的分配灵活可变,孵化模式呈现明显的“短回合,多轮换,高效率”特点,减小了亲代与子代之间以及双亲之间的利益冲突,表现出对高原环境的适应。行为节律反应了黑颈鹤的生存策略。当环境温度较低时(06:30-08:29),离巢频率降低,孵化回合延长,在巢率提高;当环境温度升高(10:30 -12:29),离巢频率增加,孵化回合缩短,在巢率降低。雌雄对温度的行为反应不同,温度较低时(06:30-08:29)雌鹤在巢率较高(58.88% vs 36.60%),正午时(12:30-14:29)雄鹤在巢率较高(47.69% vs 40.64%)。雌雄翻卵频率在12:30-14:29最高(雌鹤:2.29 次;雄鹤:2.20次),18:30-20:29最低((雌鹤:1.70次;雄鹤:1.37次)。在低温环境中提高在巢率以满足胚胎需求,在温暖环境中降低在巢率以满足生存需求,黑颈鹤的这种行为节律具有明显的环境适应性。2015年9月成功救助2只黑颈鹤并安装卫星跟踪器后放归,根据回收的数据研究黑颈鹤迁徙前的活动规律和迁徙路线。研究结果发现,黑颈鹤迁徙之前依然在繁殖期领地内活动,活动面积分别为0.55 km2和1.55 km2。2只黑颈鹤均5次转移夜宿地,与巢址的最远距离分别为3.22 km 和 1.29 km。秋季迁徙分别始于11月8号和11月14号,出发的时间均为上午10:00-11:00。仅1只黑颈鹤卫星跟踪成功,显示其到达西藏林周县越冬。迁徙距离1101 km,用时7天,其中停歇4天。保护区黑颈鹤秋季迁徙时向西南方向出发,从吐尔根达坂山和柴达木山进入青海省,经停大柴旦湖、长江源流域,再从唐古拉山口进入西藏,最后到达林周县越冬。越冬期主要在林周县的白达地区、虎头山水库及其附近区域活动。按迁徙路线划分,盐池湾黑颈鹤属于西部种群。本文首次通过卫星跟踪研究报导了西部种群黑颈鹤的迁徙路线,对黑颈鹤栖息地保护和种群保护具有重要意义。

Other Abstract

Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve (YCW) is one of the main breeding areas of the Black-necked Crane (BNC, Grus nigricollis). Breeding ecology, including population dynamics, breeding pairs, breeding habitat selection, nest density, distance between neighboring nests, nest survival, reproductive success, and recruitment rate were investigated for BNC during 2013-2015. Numbers of BNC and breeding pairs remained relatively stable at around 140 individuals and 40 pairs. Recruitment rates ranged from 15.7% to 25.8%. 29 nests were located during three years, including 24 haystack nests and 5 ground nests. Habitat type (ponds > marsh > riverine wetlands), disturbance (low > high) and water depth (deep > shallow) were the main factors that determined nest site selection of BNC. Average nest survival rate, hatching success, and breeding success of all 29 nests were 65.56 ± 5.09%, 57.04 ± 6.12% and 32.78 ± 2.55%. Water depth, water body area, and distance to land were positively related to nest survival, while disturbance level showed a negative relationship.Biparental incubation model is an exquisite model to investigate how parents resolve sexual conflict and achieve cooperation especially in alpine cold environment. We used 24-hr-per-day video monitoring of 20 nests to systematically investigate incubation pattern of the BNC. Average nest attendance was 90.12%, with almost equal female and males nest attendance (45.35% vs 44.77%). The average length of incubation bout was 2.06 h with a frequent changeover pattern (10.87 times/per day) between parents and averagely 5.05 min duration. Males significantly spent more time getting the nest than did females (5.57 min vs 4.65 min, t180= -46.61, P< 0.001) after their partner left nests. We provide the first evidence that, under natural environmental conditions, both males and females respond to reduced partner effort with diverse strategies (match, partial compensation, or full compensation). In this long-lived species with long-lasting pair bonds and low fecundity, a mate mainly compensate for reduced partner investment to avoid forfeiting the current breeding attempt. This complementary pattern made the allocation of incubation task more flexible for two cranes and thus incubation patterns exhibited characteristics of “short bouts, frequent changeovers and high efficiency”, helping reduce the conflicts between embryos and parents, and between two parents, and contributing to the adaption to alpine plateau environment.The crane’s behavior reflects its many survival strategies. Nest attendance, recess frequency, on-bout duration and egg turning frequency were calculated for each time periods during the day (6:30-20:29) to investigate how crane parents adopt to the changeable alpine environment. Parents spent more time on the nest, took less recess, prolonged on-bout duration as ambient temperature was lowest between 06:30 and 08:29 h. At higher temperature between 10:30 and 12:29, the relationship reversed. The two parents responded differently to changing temperatures. Females spent more time on the nest at lower temperatures (06:30-08:29; 58.88% vs 36.60%) and males increased their time on the nest with females’ nest time reducing (12:30-14:29; 47.69% vs 40.64%). The lowest egg turning frequency was between 18:30 and 20:29 h (female: 1.70 turns/2-h; male: 1.37 turns/2-h) and the highest egg turning frequency was between 12:30 and 14:29 h (female: 2.29 turns/2-h; male: 2.20 turns/2-h). The risk of embryo injury from chilling reduced when nest attendance increased as ambient temperature declined, and the parents’ need for feeding satisfied when nest attendance declined with increases in ambient temperature. The incubation rhythm demonstrated that crane parents incubated in different but complementary way, and efficiently enhanced egg care in a dynamic environment.Using satellite telemetry, we monitored the migration of two Black-necked Cranes in China to study their activities before migration and determine migration routes to wintering areas. Satellite-tracking data indicated cranes were present in their territory most of the time, and home ranges prior to migration were respectively 0.55 km2 and 1.55 km2. Both cranes shifted roost site throughout the season. The maximum distances from the nest sites to roost site were respectively 3.22 km and 1.29 km. Cranes started to migrate on 8 and 14 November 2015, took off between 10:00 and 11:00. Only one crane was tracked successfully from YCW to its wintering area in Linzhou country, Tibet. The total entire migration route was 1101 km, lasted for 7 days (including 4 rest days at stopover site of Dachaidan lake). BNC in YCW migrated southwest, passing through the Tuergendaban Mountain and Chaidamu Mountain, resting at Dachaidan Lake and Yangtze River Basin in Qinghai Province, flying to Tibet via Tanggula Mountain Pass, and finally getting to the wintering area in Linzhou country. During breeding season, this crane was active at Baida, Hutoushan reservoir and its nearby areas. According to the migration routes, BNC in YCW belong to the west population. This study is the first to document the migration route of west population by satellite tracking, which is of great significance to habitat protection and population conservation of BNC.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/221439
Collection生命科学学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
舒美林. 甘肃盐池湾黑颈鹤繁殖生态学与迁徙研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2017.
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