兰州大学机构库 >生命科学学院
东居延海湿地生态系统健康评价及服务功能评估
Alternative TitleThe evaluation of ecosystem’s health and service for Dong Ju Yan Hai
张婕
Thesis Advisor王刚
2018-05-31
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword东居延海 生态系统健康评价 湿地水环境 地下水补给
Abstract

湿地是具有多种功能的独特的生态系统,它可以提供多种资源和服务,是人类社会发展的基础性资源。东居延海湿地位于内蒙古阿拉善盟额济纳旗,是我国第二大内陆河黑河的尾闾,素有“大漠明珠”的美誉。但自20世纪50年代以来,随着流域工农业用水激增,导致入湖水量锐减。东居延海湿地于1992年彻底干涸,成为 我国西北地区主要的沙尘暴策源地之一。东居延海湿地生态环境恶化问题引起了社会广泛关注和党和国家的高度重视,决定通过实施黑河水资源统一调度与管理保障东居延海湿地生态需水量,逐步恢复其湿地功能。2002年7月黑河水调入干涸10年之久的东居延海,目前东居延海湖面面积基本维持在40km2左右,东居延海湿地及周边生态系统明显恢复改善。虽然目前对东居延海湿地的治理工作取得了一定的成效,但是该湿地的历史演变过程及影响机制尚不明确,同时,缺乏对其健康状态的评价指标,生态服务功能价值也未被量化,维持其健康的基本水量以及最优的地下水资源补给也尚未被准确计算。

本研究根据不同时期的遥感影像资料,研究了东居延海湿地演变过程及影响机制。通过构建生态系统健康指标体系,评价了1990年至2015年东居延海湿地生态系统健康状况。通过构建生态系统服务功能价值评估体系,计算了东居延海湿地生态系统服务功能价值。通过对东居延海及其周边开展水文调查,分析了湿地水环境变化及地下水补给来源。最后,依据相关监测数据和生态需水估算模型,计算了维持湿地生态系统健康的基本水量。通过上述研究,得到了以下主要结论:1、东居延海湿地历史演变及近30年景观格局变化。近30年,东居延海经历了2次干涸,分别是1986年和1992–2001年。遥感解译上世纪80年代中期东居延海水域面积约35km2,2005年以来已达到这一水平。上世纪80年代,东居延海湿地植被主要以灌木和草本为主,南部绕东居延海呈带状连续分布,1992年干涸后湿地植被逐渐退化,至2001年变成了不毛之地;2002年后通过向东居延海持续补水,周边植被面积明显增加,尤以草本最明显,植被由退化转向逐步恢复。2、东居延海湿地生态系统健康诊断及评价。选取压力–状态–响应(PSR)模型,构建了东居延海湿地生态系统健康评价指标体系。同时,本研究选择了样本区间为1990年至2015年的年度数据,计算了东居延海生态系统健康指数。结果表明,在1990年,该生态系统健康指数较高,但是由于东居延海干涸,其生态系统被严重破坏,指数随之开始下降。通过水资源统一调度和相应的治理,从2001年开始,该生态系统健康状况开始逐渐恢复。到2010年,健康指数已经超过1990年,并且保持上升趋势,表明东居延海生态系统健康状况越来越好,对该生态系统的治理取得了很好的成效。3、东居延海湿地生态系统服务价值评估。从经济功能价值、环境功能价值和社会文化功能价值3大类构建生态系统服务功能价值评估指标体系,计算得出2015年东居延海湿地生态系统服务价值为35049.27万元,单位面积服务价值为8.65万元·hm-2,远高于全国生态系统单位服务价值5400元·hm-2。在东居延海湿地生态系统服务价值中,社会文化功能价值大于环境功能价值,而经济功能价值最小,其中社会文化价值占据了超过半数的比例,达到了67.82%。4、东居延海水环境变化及地下水补给来源分析。对东居延海湖水进行采样和化学参数特征值分析,东居延海水质由微咸水(1980年)变为咸水(2001年)再变为微咸水(2015年);水化学类型均为SO4-2–Cl-–Na+–Mg2+。建立二元、三元混合模型分别计算出东居延海浅层地下水补给中降水补给占13%,河水渗漏补给占87%;深层地下水补给中游地下水侧向补给占51%,浅层地下水入渗补给占30%,古水越流补给占19%。5、东居延海湿地生态系统维持健康的需水量估算。运用月保证率设定法计算不同保证率(50%、75%、95%)下的湖泊面积,据此估算出对应面积下维持生态环境健康所需的年最低供水量分别为0.86×108m3、0.77 ×108m3、0.50×108m3。同时,通过建立入湖水量和综合健康指数的相关关系计算出维持东居延海湿地生态系统健康的年最低生态补水量为0.38×108m3

Other Abstract

Wetland is a unique ecosystem with many functions. It can provide a variety of resources and services and is a basic resource for the development of human society. Dong Ju Yan Hai Wetland is located in Ejina Qi of Alashan League in Inner Mongolia and is known as the “Pearl of Dessert”. However, since the 1950s, with the dramatic increase in water use for industry and agriculture in the Heihe River Basin, the amount of water entering the lake has plummeted, and the Dong Ju Yan Hai Wetland has completely dried up in 1992, becoming one of the major source of sand storm in northwest of China. The problem of deterioration of the ecological environment in Dong Ju Yan Hai has caused the party and the country to attach great importance to it. It was decided to implement the unified management of the Hei he water resources management and the comprehensive management of the river basin, rationally allocate the basin water resources, ensure the ecological water demand of the Dong Ju Yan Hai wetland, and curb its ecological deteriorating trends and gradual restoration of wetland functions. In July 2002, Heihe River was relocated to Dong Ju Yan Hai, which was dried for 10 years. At present, the water surface area of Dong Ju Yan Hai is basically maintained at about 40 km2. The Dong Ju Yan Hai wetland and its surrounding ecosystems have obviously recovered and improved. Currently, even though some good results have been achieved after the management, the historical evolution process and influence mechanism of Dong Ju Yan Hai is still not clear. At the mean time, it is lack of the evaluation standard for the health status of Dong Ju Yan Hai wetland ecosystem. And the ecological service function and value of Dong Ju Yan Hai Wetland have not been quantified yet. Finally, the basic water quantity that sustains the health of Dong Ju Yan Hai, and the optimal supply of local groundwater resources have not been computed.

Based on the remote sensing image data of Dong Ju Yan Hai during different periods, this study investigates the evolution process and mechanism of Dong Ju Yan Hai wetland. Through the construction of indicator system of ecosystem health, the ecological health status have been evaluated between 1990 and 2015. And the value of service function of wetland ecosystem has been computed by implementing the evaluating system of service function value. Through the hydrological survey of Dong Ju Yan Hai and its surrounding areas, this study analyzes the change of wetland water environment and source of ground water supply. Finally, based on related supervising data and models of water demand, this study computes the basic water requirement for the health of wetland ecosystem. Through the above research, we have obtained the following main conclusions:1、Evolution of the Dong ju yan hai in the historical period and the change of landscape pattern in recent 30 years.Since the 1980s, Dong ju yan hai dried up twice, respectively in 1986 and 1992-2001, and the area of waters in the mid-1980s that was interpreted by remote sensing was about 35 km2. The water area has reached this level since 2005. In the 1980s, the vegetation of Dong ju yan hai was mainly dominated by shrubs and herbs. In the south, it stretched continuously around the east and stretched to form a strip. It was severely degraded since 1992. Till 2001, this area became barren land. After 2002, the water was supplied continuously, the vegetation area increased significantly. Herbs are the most obvious, and vegetation has gradually shifted from degeneration to gradual recovery.2、  Ecological diagnosis and assessment of Yanhai Yanhai wetland ecosystem.The Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model was selected to construct the Dongju Yanhai Wetland Ecosystem Health Evaluation Index System. At the mean time, the sample used contains annual data from 1990 to 2015, and the ecosystem health index is calculated. The results show that, the index in 1990 is relatively high, but because of drought of Dong Ju Yan Hai, its ecosystem was destroyed completely, then this index decreases. After the water resources management and the corresponding gouvernance, since 2001, this ecosystem became to recover gradually. In 2010, this index is larger the it is in 1990, and continue to increase, which implies that, the health status of Dong Ju Yan Hai ecosystem becomes better and better, and the gouvernance has achieved good results.3、Ecological Service Function and Assessment of Dongju yan hai Wetland.The evaluation index system of ecosystem service function value is constructed through three aspects, value of economic function, value of environmental function, value of social culture function, and after computation, the total ecological service value of Dong ju yan hai is more than 350 million yuan per year, 86.5 thousand yuan per unit of surface, which is much higher than 5.4 thousand yuan of the ecological service value of national unit of surface. Among the three sub-indicators, value of social culture function is larger than the value of environmental function, and the value of economic function is smallest. The proportion of value of social culture function attains 67.82%.4、Analysis of water environment changes and groundwater recharge sources.Through the sampling and analysis of specific value of chemical parameters in Dongju Lake, Dongju Lake changed from brackish water (1980) to saltwater (2001) and then to brackish water (2015). The main types of lake water chemistry are always SO4-2–Cl-–Na+–Mg2+. By the construction and calculation of the binary mixture model and the ternary mixture model, the amount of precipitation recharge in the shallow groundwater is 13%, 87% is recharged by the river water seepage; the groundwater recharge in the middle groundwater of deep groundwater, which accounts for 51%, and the recharge of shallow groundwater accounts for 30%, the exchange of slowly-renewed water between water layers supplies more than 19%.5、Demand of water for the health of Dongju Yanhai Wetland Ecosystem.Using the monthly guarantee rate setting method to calculate the lake area under different guarantee rates, the lake water requirements for the different guarantee rates (50%, 75%, 95%) is calculated according to this, which are 0.86×108m3、0.77 ×108m3、0.50 ×108m3 respectively. At the same time, based on the correlation between entering volume of water and criteria of ecosystem health, the minimum amount of water used for ecological restoration was 0.38×108m3.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/221531
Collection生命科学学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张婕. 东居延海湿地生态系统健康评价及服务功能评估[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2018.
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