|Other Abstract||Biodeterioration is a common problem at the historical and archaeological sites. A detailed inventory of microorganisms which is responsible for biodegradation of ancient paintings has become an integral part of restoration and prevention activities. The Xu Xianxiu Tomb (571 AD), with large murals in high value at history, culture and archaeology, is the best well-preserved brick tomb of Northern Qi dynasty.
In this study, a combination method of traditional cultured method and 18S rRNA gene-based molecular techniques was used to investigate fungal diversity and concentration of aerosol samples, mural surface samples, and inner mural samples in Xu Xianxiu Tomb (Taiyuan, China). Then microflora, fungal spatial distribution, fungal composition, and their ambient determinant (eg, environmental factors) were further analyzed. The ability of these agents in degradating mural matrix (for example Calcium Carbonate) was determinated to further explore the damage mechanism of biodeterioration on murals. The main results are described as below.
(1) 3 genera, which are Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp., were shared by aerosol samples, mural surface samples and inner mural samples, and totally took absolute advantage 86.35%, 88.67%, 68.46% singly in these three samples.
(2) It is completely that the fungal community from mural surface was included in aerosol microflora, but the fugal community from inner mural samples was different from them.
(3) RDA triplots showed a strong diversity gradient on each main ordination axis. And the main environmental factors to impact airbone microflora were temperature, relative humidity and depth, but to murals was colorant only.
(4) Five genera, which are Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Myrothecium sp., Neurospora sp., and Aureobasidium sp. could degrade Calcium Carbonate.
To sum up, the results showed that these fungi have potential ability to destroy murals, and their growth was affected by the environmental conditions. Therefore, in view of the imperative to protect Xu Xianxiu Tomb, we recommend that the environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) in tomb should be strictly controlled to reduce the bad influence from external environment (ventilation, visits, etc.). These results are in high scientific value for protecting Xu Xianxiu Tomb, and provide the oretical guidance and scientific basis for heritage workers.|