兰州大学机构库 >生命科学学院
北齐徐显秀墓室壁画及空气真菌多样性研究
Alternative TitleThe Study of Fungal Diversity from Murals and Aerosol in Xu Xianxiu Tomb in Northern Qi Dynasty
向婷
Thesis Advisor冯虎元 ; 汪万福
2014-05-26
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword地下墓穴 壁画 生物侵蚀 真菌多样性 冗余分析(RDA) 空气微生物 碳酸钙降解 徐显秀墓
Abstract生物侵蚀(Biodeterioration)是历史遗迹和考古现场普遍存在的问题。对能引起古代壁画生物侵蚀的有害微生物多样性研究已成为文保工作中不可缺少的一部分。徐显秀墓是少数几个北齐文物遗址之一,具有极其重要的保护价值。 本文结合微生物学传统培养技术和基于18S rRNA的分子生物学手段,对徐显秀墓室空气样品、壁画表面样品和壁画基质样品可培养真菌的多样性、空间分布及其影响因素进行研究,并初步评估它们降解壁画基质(碳酸钙)的能力。主要结果如下: (1) 从三种样品中共分离得到真菌有17个属,优势菌属均为Penicillium sp.、Cladosporium sp. 和Alternaria sp.,分别占其总浓度的86.35%、88.67%和68.46%。 (2)空气真菌多样性完全包含了壁画表面真菌多样性,壁画基质真菌多样性与二者有很大差异。 (3)RDA分析显示影响空气真菌多样性的主要环境参数是相对湿度、温度和深度,而影响壁画的只有颜料参数。 (4)Penicillium sp.、Cladosporium sp.、Myrothecium sp. Neurospora sp., 和 Aureobasidium sp. 五个属的真菌具有降解碳酸钙的能力。 综上所述,分离到的真菌具有破坏壁画的潜力,生长受到墓室环境条件的影响。我们建议严格控制墓室环境条件(温度、湿度),减少外界环境(通风、参观等)对墓室环境的影响。本文对壁画保护具有科学参考价值,能够为文物保护工作者提供切实可行的理论指导和科学依据。
Other AbstractBiodeterioration is a common problem at the historical and archaeological sites. A detailed inventory of microorganisms which is responsible for biodegradation of ancient paintings has become an integral part of restoration and prevention activities. The Xu Xianxiu Tomb (571 AD), with large murals in high value at history, culture and archaeology, is the best well-preserved brick tomb of Northern Qi dynasty. In this study, a combination method of traditional cultured method and 18S rRNA gene-based molecular techniques was used to investigate fungal diversity and concentration of aerosol samples, mural surface samples, and inner mural samples in Xu Xianxiu Tomb (Taiyuan, China). Then microflora, fungal spatial distribution, fungal composition, and their ambient determinant (eg, environmental factors) were further analyzed. The ability of these agents in degradating mural matrix (for example Calcium Carbonate) was determinated to further explore the damage mechanism of biodeterioration on murals. The main results are described as below. (1) 3 genera, which are Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp., were shared by aerosol samples, mural surface samples and inner mural samples, and totally took absolute advantage 86.35%, 88.67%, 68.46% singly in these three samples. (2) It is completely that the fungal community from mural surface was included in aerosol microflora, but the fugal community from inner mural samples was different from them. (3) RDA triplots showed a strong diversity gradient on each main ordination axis. And the main environmental factors to impact airbone microflora were temperature, relative humidity and depth, but to murals was colorant only. (4) Five genera, which are Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Myrothecium sp., Neurospora sp., and Aureobasidium sp. could degrade Calcium Carbonate. To sum up, the results showed that these fungi have potential ability to destroy murals, and their growth was affected by the environmental conditions. Therefore, in view of the imperative to protect Xu Xianxiu Tomb, we recommend that the environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) in tomb should be strictly controlled to reduce the bad influence from external environment (ventilation, visits, etc.). These results are in high scientific value for protecting Xu Xianxiu Tomb, and provide the oretical guidance and scientific basis for heritage workers.
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/221736
Collection生命科学学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
向婷. 北齐徐显秀墓室壁画及空气真菌多样性研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2014.
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