兰州大学机构库 >土木工程与力学学院
物探方法在石质文物保护中的应用研究
Alternative TitleApplication of geophysical prospecting methods in the protection of stone relics
朱军昌
Thesis Advisor周仲华
2013-05-26
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword物探方法 石质文物 病害保护 检测
Abstract我国石质文物类型诸多,分布极广,遍布南北疆域,涉及到的环境地质问题也极为复杂,在此以石窟为石质文物代表,研究物探方法在石质文物保护中的应用。无论从文物价值、艺术价值等方面来讲,丰富多彩的石窟是我国十分重要石质文物的类型之一,直接提供了古代佛教等宗教历史、雕刻历史、社会历史、政治经济变革等珍贵资料,是不可再生资源,保护的迫切性很明显,同时,保护的科学合理性也至关重要。 广泛分布范围涉及到诸多环境地质问题,文物保存环境也变得极为复杂多变,在实际研究保护工作中查明石窟寺的岩体性质和赋存的地质环境尤为关键;近年来,在石窟病害研究中,应用地球物理方法越来越普遍。例如,利用超声波法探测岩体风化程度、灌浆效果及裂隙位置;利用微测深法探测裂隙延伸、风化层厚度;利用自然电场法等直流电阻率法探测窟顶基岩埋深、渗水途径;利用地质雷达探测掩埋的洞窟和古墓位置、窟区分层;利用浅层地震法用于探测石窟岩体深部裂隙发育状况、石雕内部缺陷以及窟前考古等;另外,电磁法也用于古墓、隐伏体、断裂、岩溶等的探查。 本文以云冈石窟、北石窟等为代表,将地震CT法、自然电场法以及高密度电阻率法等多种物探方法引入石窟文物保护,通过多种物探及定量钻探,从地震波性、电性差异分辨上相互印证,探测深度浅、深相结合揭示了窟区岩体破碎程度及软弱带的位置、空间展布情况及波速特征。通过场地试验得出地震CT法技术具有较高分辨率,通过同一观测记录,读取走时和频谱分析,得到云冈石窟三号窟、北石窟165窟南北两侧等窟壁波速图像及衰减图像;高密度电阻率法对云冈、北石窟窟区岩体电性差异性较为敏感,通过现场布置采集及使内处理定位窟区丰水、渗水等区域;同时,对山地过滤电场对地下水流向特性敏感特性进行研究,较适合北石窟浅层地下水流向、及渗漏位置等定向、定位;结合地质雷达法及多道瞬态面波等常见无损物探方法特点,为定位石窟裂隙水赋存类型及通道,降低水岩、风化作用等保护治理提供充分有效依据。 通过理论和现场实际应用研究,物探方法在石质文物保护中较常规勘探手段具有明显的优势,不同物探方法综合利用、相互验证,为石窟病害治理提供依据。本项应用研究为其他石窟文物保护工作提供了一种新的思路。
Other AbstractThere are many Stone cultural relics of different types, in China. They are widely distributed throughout the whole country. Some relics are located in extremely complex environment, which have geological problems. Take Grotto as an example, study geophysical methods applied in the conservation of stone relics. Grotto can be found in many places, from KunLun to the East China Sea, from WuYue to YouYan, so much so that Grottoes can be found everywhere in NanZhao of DianNan. Grotto is one of the very important stone relics, no matter from the value of cultural or from art. Because, Grotto is laden with history of ancient buddhism、carving、society affairs、financial condition, and is unrenewable resources. To protect it is urgent, and the method of protection must be scientific and rational. Owing to the widespread of Grotto, protecting of the Grotto encounters environmental geological problems. So it is very important to find out the geological environment where grotto is located in and rock types of the grotto in the process of protection. In recent yeas,it is more and more widespread to use geophysical methods in the research of diseases of grottoes. Such as, taking advantage of the Ultrasonic Method for detecting rock weathering degree and the grouting effect and the localization of cracks; taking advantage of the micro-sounding method for detecting fracture extension and weathering depth; taking advantage of the direct current resistivity method for detecting the thickness of the bed rock that on the top of the grottoes and percolation passes; taking advantage of the ground penetrating radar for detecting the locate of the ancient tomb and buried grottoes; taking advantage of the Shallow Seismic Method for detecting the deep fracture development of grottoes and internal defects of stone carving. In addition, electromagnetic method can be used for detecting ancient tomb and buried block and fracture and karst. Here,taking Yungang Grotto and Northern Grotto as an example, the methods of seismic tomography and natural electric field and high density resistivity method are introduced into the Preservation of Cultural Relics of Caves. Through the method of field test, the result that seismic tomography have a high resolution ratio was got. After observing the same records, reading the time and spectrum, we can get the image of wave velocity and decayed wave velocity of the third Caves of Yungang Grotto and number 165 cave of Northern Grotto.The Yungang...
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Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/225874
Collection土木工程与力学学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
朱军昌. 物探方法在石质文物保护中的应用研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2013.
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