兰州大学机构库 >土木工程与力学学院
山寨煤矿开采地质环境评价
Alternative TitleGeological environment assessment of Shanzhai coal mining
李奇峰
Thesis Advisor梁收运
2010-05-30
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword煤矿开采 水文地质 工程地质 环境地质 勘探与评价
Abstract矿床开采技术条件是评价矿床时的一项重要研究内容,是指决定或影响开采方法和技术措施的各种地质及技术因素。矿区水工环地质条件是矿床开采技术条件的一个重要内容,决定着矿山的建设规模及矿床的开发利用。正确可靠的评价能给矿产开发、安全生产、环境保护提供重要的设计依据。 论文以山寨煤矿地质环境评价为主题,通过收集资料、野外地质调查,结合地质钻探、抽水试验、室内试验等综合方法,重点分析,全面兼顾,评价了山寨煤矿地质环境特征,为矿山开采提供水工环地质依据,评价方法也为矿山水工环地质勘探与评价提供借鉴。 水文地质评价中,重点对含水层与隔水层及矿井充水因素作了深入的分析;工程地质评价中,对矿体围岩的工程地质特征及煤层直接顶底板进行了较为详尽的分析;环境地质评价中,着重对矿区环境地质的影响因素作了深入探讨。 评价结果表明:山寨井田矿床主要充水含水层富水性弱,补给条件差,水文地质复杂类型为第二类第一型,即以裂隙充水为主,水文地质条件简单的矿床。矿区地形地貌复杂,地层岩性变化大,地下水静水压力大,煤层在开采过程中顶压和底鼓现象将是常见现象,矿床顶底板将会出现难以管理等复杂工程地质问题,工程地质勘查类型属“Ⅲ类Ⅲ型”,即层状岩类复杂型。矿区生态环境脆弱,地表植被稀疏,山体滑坡、崩塌现象一般发育,地下水质综合评价结果为较差至极差。矿井开采后,会进一步恶化地质环境,矿区地质环境质量类型为第三类,即矿区地质环境质量属不良类型。 预测煤矿开采,矿山水文地质问题主要表现为采煤排水会造成矿区主要充水含水层的疏干,地下水对采矿活动充水威胁较小。矿山工程地质问题主要表现为煤层的顶底板会造成井巷和工作面的顶压和底鼓现象。矿山环境地质问题主要表现为采煤后可产生地表变形及矿区有害物质的污染。因此,针对矿山水工环地质问题,采用加强巷道与工作面的支护、预留保护煤柱、采后修复治理等积极的预防治理措施,可减轻采矿活动对矿山地质环境的破坏。
Other AbstractThe technical conditions of deposit mining is an important research content for evaluating deposits, which is variousiy geological and technical factors including deciding or influencing the mining method and technical measures. The hydrogeology conditions of mining area is an important content of the technical conditions of deposit mining, which determines the construction scale of mines and development and utilization of deposits. The accurate and reliable evaluation of mineral exploitation provides important design basis for mineral exploitation, safe production and environmental protection. This paper takes the geological environment assessment of Shanzhai mine as the theme, through collecting data, field geological investigation, combined with geological drilling, pumping tests and indoor tests and so on, mainly analyses and evaluates the geo-environment characteristics of Shanzhai mine, which provides hydrogeology basis for mining and the evaluation method offers the reference to hydrogeology, engineering geology and geo-environment exploration and assessment of mines. In the hydrogeology evaluation, the study focuses on the analysis of aquifer and water-resisting layer and the filling water factors of coal mine. In engineering geology evaluation, the engineering geological characteristics of rock and the direct roof and floor of coal bed are studied in detail. At last, the paper mainly researches geo-environmental influence factors of mine in the geo-environment evaluation. The evaluating results shows that the capability of filling water is weak and the supply condition is poor in major aquifer of Shanzhai mine, so the complex type of hydrogeology is species 2, type 1 that the mine bed is filled with fracture water and hydro-geological conditions is simple. Due to complicated topography, various lithology, big hydrostatic pressure of groundwater in mine area, the phenomenon of top pressure and the heaving floor are common phenomenon in the process of coal mining and the roof and floor of deposit will appear complex engineering geological problems such as hard manage and so on, so the class of engineering geology exploration is specie Ⅲ, type Ⅲ (intricately layered rock types). In exploration area, because of ecological environment being weak, sparse vegetation, landslides and collapse growing and comprehensive evaluation of groundwater quality is poor to very poor, the geo- environmental situation will be worse after mine exploitation, there...
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/225983
Collection土木工程与力学学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李奇峰. 山寨煤矿开采地质环境评价[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2010.
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