兰州大学机构库 >土木工程与力学学院
敦煌莫高窟崖体中水、盐分布现状初步分析
Alternative TitleA preliminary study of the moisture and salt distribution in the cliff of Mogao Grottoes at Dunhuang
杨善龙
Thesis Advisor王旭东
2009-05-28
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword莫高窟 水分 盐分 分布 温度 相对湿度 物探
Abstract敦煌莫高窟位于敦煌市东南25公里处,开凿在鸣沙山东麓断崖上,南北长1600多米,现存有壁画和塑像的洞窟492个,除5个分布在北区外,其他均在南区。莫高窟1961年被国务院首批列为全国重点文物保护单位,1987年被联合国科教文组织列入世界文化遗产名录。 由于自然和人为原因,莫高窟壁画存在酥碱、空鼓、疱疹等许多严重病害,一些学者认为这些病害的产生是由于崖体中的盐分运移导致的。目前对于崖体中的盐分和水分的分布现状还没有一个很深入的研究,这对于具体分析壁画病害产生的根源显得非常不足。 本论文通过在莫高窟九层楼顶向西150米处开挖探井,现场取样,对崖体垂直方向20米深范围内的水分、盐分分布进行了调查;在莫高窟108窟西壁钻孔进行了温湿度监测,并调查了其中的盐分和水分分布状况;在崖顶和窟前进行了物探测试,了解莫高窟砂砾层中水分分布现状。通过以上多项调查,初步掌握了莫高窟崖体中水分、盐分的分布现状,这对解释壁画病害的产生过程有重要意义。 通过在崖顶探井内取样实测,发现莫高窟崖体中水分分布与地层有很大关系,在细粒土中含水率最高达24%,在砂砾中含量基本在2%左右。盐分在崖顶戈壁层表面和洞窟围岩(洞窟西壁)中均出现迁移聚集现象,聚集深度在表面向内0.6米范围内。 通过本论文的研究,对崖体中水分和盐分分布现状有了较深的认识,这为解释莫高窟壁画病害的产生过程提供了依据,为找到相应的保护措施提供了参考,对莫高窟壁画的长久保存具有重要意义。另外,该工作对西北干旱地区石窟寺,土遗址中同类盐害问题的研究具有一定的借鉴意义。
Other AbstractMogao grottoes are located at southeast of Dunhuang, 25 kilometers from Dunhuang city, dug in east cliff of Mingsha mountain, about 1600 meters long from south to north. Wall paintings and statues are existing in 492 caves, except 5 caves are located in the north area, the others are in the south area. The Mogao grottoes, the first National key heritage sites unit listed in 1961, and written on world heritage list by the UNESCO in 1987. Because of natural and human factors, the Wall paintings of Mogao grottoes are deteriorated by efflorescence, detachment, flaking and many other serious diseases. Many scholars think the deterioration is related to salts migration from the cliff to Wall paintings. We haven’t fully understood about salts and water sources and no enough evidence to interpret the deterioration. We have investigated the moisture and salts distribution in cliff at a vertical range of 20 meters by dug a exploratory well on the top of the cliff. The relative humidity and temperature have been monitored in cave 108, and the moisture and salts have been investigated too. In order to measure and test the distribution of moisture at the top of cliff and the front ,we had a geophysical prospecting . The moisture and salts content in the cliff had a preliminary understanding though many works. It is good for study the deterioration process that in Wall paintings. Through the measurement of the samples taken from the exploratory well, there is a relation between the moisture distribution and formation of Mogao grottoes cliff, in fine-grained soils the moisture content is up to 24%, and even 2% in conglomerate. Salts in the gobi layer and surrounding rock of caves aggregated to the surface, the aggregated depth is about 0.6 meters. Through the study described in this thesis, a deeper understanding of the distribution of moisture and salt in the body of cliffs has been obtained, which is the foundation of a thorough understanding of the developing process of mural disease in Grottoes. It is of certain reference value for finding relevant protective measures, and therefore it is of great importance for the permanent protection of the murals in Mogao Grottoes. The result of the research can also be used for reference in solving the same salt problems of other grottoes and earth relics in the northwestern arid regions in China.
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/226563
Collection土木工程与力学学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨善龙. 敦煌莫高窟崖体中水、盐分布现状初步分析[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2009.
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