兰州大学机构库 >外国语学院
频率对二语单词及短语再认记忆的影响作用之研究
Alternative TitleA Study of the Frequency Effects on the Second Language Recognition Memory of Words and Phrases
李发睿
Thesis Advisor卢雨菁
2018-04-01
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword再认记忆 频率效应 镜像效应 语意合成性
Abstract

词频在语言使用和习得中的影响作用一直是语言研究的热点之一。已有研究证明,词频在阅读理解、语言习得和信息提取中都发挥着重要作用,且高频率词汇通常都展现出一定的加工和提取优势,即更容易被理解、习得和记忆。然而在再认记忆研究中,词频呈现镜像效应,低频词被证明具有更突出优势,在再认记忆中更容易被识别。本研究借助计算机辅助实验方法,使用心理学实验软件DMDX作为实验工具,以150名中国大学生作为实验受试,从美国当代英语语料库(COCA)和中国学习者英语语料库(CLEC)中选取高低频词汇和高低频短语作为实验材料,旨在探寻二语学习者在再认记忆测试中词频和短语频率的影响作用。此外,本研究还对比在频率作为变量条件下,词汇与短语在再认记忆中结果的异同,并试图探讨解释短语的语意合成性问题。
根据研究目的,作者提出了以下几个研究问题。(1)词频是否影响二语再认记忆中的词汇处理?如果影响,频率的影响是否呈现镜像效应?(2)短语频率是否影响二语再认记忆中短语的处理?如果影响,其结果是否呈现镜像效应?(3)频率对词汇和短语的影响作用在再认记忆中是否存在相似点或不同点?如果存在,有何相似或不同?作者在此研究中相应设计三个实验以解决以上研究问题,并在研究问题的基础上,提出了研究假设。
通过分析实验结果,本研究主要有以下三个方面的发现。首先,中国英语学习者在词汇再认记忆中,其测试结果受频率影响,且结果呈现镜像效应。二语学习者在词汇再认记忆中所呈现的结果与其他研究者在母语使用者为受试的实验中证明的结果相同,词频均表现出镜像效应,即受试对低频词进行再认判断时表现出更高的准确率。其次,在短语再认记忆测试中,其结果并未呈现镜像效应。受试在进行实验材料为短语的再认记忆测试时,未呈现出镜像效应。所以,词汇和短语在再认记忆中表现出的差异也间接论证了短语在语意合成性中的一些问题,否定了短语与词汇提取机制相同的论断。最后,本研究结果显示,频率对再认记忆中的反应时间无显著性影响。基于这一结果,作者在文中进行了讨论并给出了相应的解释与推测。

Other Abstract

The effects of word frequency on language using and acquisition have been a hot topic in language study. Some research results have proved that word frequency plays an important role in reading comprehension, language acquisition, and information extraction. High-frequency words always show advantages in language processing in the past research. While in the study of recognition memory in first language (L1), frequency effects present mirror effect, which means low-frequency words own more advantages and can be identified more easily than high-frequency words. The study here aims to investigate whether word frequency and phrase frequency affect the processing of words or phrases in second language (L2) recognition memory. This study uses the psychological experiment software DMDX as an experiment tool, and chooses experiment materials from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) and the Chinese Learner English Corpus (CLEC). The 150 postgraduates of Lanzhou University take part in the study as participants. Besides, by comparison and contrast of the results between words and phrases in recognition memory, this study tries to explain some issues about compositionality.
According to the research objectives, the author proposes the following research questions. (1) Does word frequency affect the processing of words in L2 recognition memory? If it does, what are the differences between the high-frequency category and the low-frequency category? Does the effect show mirror effect? (2) Does phrase frequency affect the processing of phrases in L2 recognition memory? If it does, what are the differences between the high-frequency category and the low-frequency category? Does the effect show mirror effect? (3) Are the results of Question 1 and Question 2 similar or different? Do words and phrases show similar or different results in the processing of recognition memory? The study designs three experiments to test and answer the above questions. Based on the research questions, the author also puts forward the relevant hypotheses for this study.
On the basis of the results and analyses of the three experiments, this study finds that word frequency in recognition memory shows mirror effect, which supports some scholars’ relevant research results. In the experiments, low-frequency words attract more hits and fewer false alarms than those of high-frequency words, which means low-frequency words can be identified more easily in recognition memory. In the experiments, however, phrase frequency does not show the same results as the word frequency does. That is to say that phrase frequency does not present mirror effect. The differences between word frequency effect and phrase frequency effect provide evidence to discuss the issue of compositionality. This also denies the view that phrases share the same retrieval model with words in memory. Thus, mirror effect is not the necessary manifestation in recognition memory. And phrases are not processed holistically in recognition memory as words, because they are compositional. Finally, the results show that word frequency and phrase frequency present no significant influence on response time in recognition memory. Based on the above-mentioned analyses, the author gives further discussion about the response time, and gives some possible explanations and interpretations of the results.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/226830
Collection外国语学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李发睿. 频率对二语单词及短语再认记忆的影响作用之研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2018.
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