兰州大学机构库 >外国语学院
Alternative TitleUnselfing of the Self: On Murdoch’s Moral Exploration in Her Three Novels
Thesis Advisor杨士虎
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword无我化 自我 洞穴喻 爱欲
Abstract本文通过分析默多克在研究无我化问题上最具代表性的三部小说《在网下》、《黑王子》、《大海啊,大海》,旨在深入探讨默多克是如何主张个体消融自我的角色,达到更大意义上的存在。 自我的角色在个体中根深蒂固。笛卡尔认为它是“我思”的主体,弗洛伊德把它作为分析的对象。然而自我绝对权威的地位易使真相扭曲,从而令幻象成为可能。无我化主张消融个体,这在一些东方宗教的教条里得到体现。默多克受到佛教和道教的影响,将无我化思想应用到其文学创作中。她认为无我化的最终目标是为了达到“至善”,也是柏拉图洞穴喻中的太阳。 本文分析的三部小说记录了默多克在无我化道路上探索的足迹。《在网下》中,杰克在一开始就是闻名的自我中心者,他被封闭在自己的世界里,对外界的客观存在没有概念。对偶然性及一系列真相的顿悟,连同雨果维特根斯坦式的言语,最终使他对人生开始产生新的觉悟。布拉德利的问题源于他艺术家的身份和对文学的追求。如同柏拉图说的那样,爱欲使他睁开双眼,并迈出“去我”的第一步。《大海啊,大海》涉及到了宗教的问题。查理斯在同是佛教徒身份的表兄詹姆斯的影响下,最终放下普洛斯佩罗式的魔法,回归平凡宁静的伦敦生活。 柏拉图的理论体系,特别是他的“至善论”,是默多克整个哲学伦理学,以及文学创作理论的基础。柏拉图的洞穴喻以及玛息阿的神话阐释了无我化的过程。西蒙•威尔提出的“关注”是无我化之旅的起点。艺术引领人类开始更高层次的追求,而爱欲是帮助人类解除自我封闭的关键。佛教以其直视死亡的教义,破除基督教中受难的迷信,斩断了人类对于受虐的依恋。在个体的无我化道路上,这些都是不可缺少的部分。 “至善”是默多克文学创作的永恒主题,而无我化是默多克在 “至善”探索的过程中找到的答案。本文通过分析得出结论,无我化是默多克“至善”理论系统最重要的组成部分。人类通过不断追求无我化试图打破自我的界限,达到更深刻更广大意义上的存在。
Other AbstractThis thesis attempts to study Murdoch’s three novels, Under the Net (1954), The Black Prince (1973), The Sea, the Sea (1978), aiming to probe into Murdoch’s process of unselfing, and thereby to explore the proper way to dissolve the self for existence in a broader sense. The part of ego is deep-rooted in human history. It is the subject to think, according to Descartes, and the object of close analysis for Freud. Because of its absolutely dominant position, the ego can easily produce distorted reflections and images of the reality and so is filled with fantasies and illusions. Unselfing, the process of dissolving the self, is advocated in some eastern religious creeds. Influenced by Buddhism and Taoism, Murdoch advances unselfing in her literary creation. The ultimate purpose of it is to achieve Good, the illuminating Sun outside Plato’s Cave. The three novels discussed in this thesis record the process of Murdoch’s maturity on the exploration of unselfing. Jake in Under the Net is the notorious solipsist, who is caged in his own world without any consideration of other existence. His final awakening involves sudden realization of truth and contingencies and the enlightenment from the saint-like character, Hugo. Bradley’s problem originates from his obsession with art. Eros, as Plato tells us, widens his eyes for others, and thus begins his way of de-ego. A religious attitude is discussed in The Sea, the Sea, in which Charles, under the influence of his cousin, James, a Buddhist, finally forsakes his addiction to suffering and returns to the daily London life. Plato’s theoretical system, and especially his ideas of Good, is the foundation of Murdoch’s philosophical and moral research and pursuit. His Allegory of Cave expatiates on the unselfing process of human beings. The Phrygian musician Marsyas’ holy contact with the divinity, the moment of acute ascesis with equally an agony and an ecstasy, also signifies the endeavor of unselfing. Attention, the key to “the Decreation of I” according to Simone Weil, functions as the first step to unself. Art begins one’s way of searching and Eros opens up the self-closed ego to the objectivity of the world. Buddhism, by teaching the stern lesson of death which has been carefully covered by Christianity, keeps us from a special favor for suffering and sado-masochism. Unselfing is a result of Murdoch’s lifetime pursuit of Good, the eternal motif in her literary creation. The thesis con...
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘芳. 个体的"无我化"之路—论默多克在其三部代表作中的道德探索[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2008.
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