兰州大学机构库 >文学院
周作人文学思想研究
Alternative TitleOn Zhou Zuoren’s Literary Ideas
关峰
Thesis Advisor常文昌
2006-03-03
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword周作人 文章 文学 文体 文质
Abstract

思想和文章是周作人世界的两大柱石,要想全面深入地了解周作人,任何一维都不应忽视。它们互相联系,交融错杂,构筑了一座精神的殿堂。周作人在文章、文学、文体和文质四个方面把思想和文章贯通起来。文章的概念在周作人那里更正式也更亲切,是传统文章观念的现代转化。诗和小说在他都被当作文章看,而文学则更像是一个“异己”的范畴,与文章相比,它承担了过多的其它的意识类型,诸如政治、道德、革命等。相信世界主义的五四时期的周作人就把文学与人道主义、进化论、新村思想等联系起来,四十年代初期更主张伦理的文学观。“文学”是带有某种功利色彩的,这是当时流行的关于“文学”的见解,周作人对文学的考察也以此为本。三十年代周作人以翻读和摘抄古书为业,他也因此被人戏称为“文抄公”,另外,关于小说、诗等也都有他自己的意见和探索,这些共同呈现了他关于文体思考的面相。周作人对“质”非常看重,他涉猎学科领域广、知识杂,这为他从较高层面上思考问题打下了坚实的基础,以思想知人论世,所见也较为全面,文学实质上是思想的载体,可以说,思想就是高层次的文学的隐喻。
文章观分析了文章与精神的联系,要“以虚灵之物为上古之方舟”,二十年代浮躁凌厉时期体现了“掐臂见血”式的文学观念,大革命失败后,知识分子开始了比五四落潮后更为严重的分化趋势,周作人认为文字无可为,转而提倡写草木虫鱼,实践“自己的文章”的口号。不过这些文章并非“隐逸体”,有着内里的道德在。后期周作人强调儒家思想与生活主义,这也是他道德实践的根因。文学观更多连带着思想和道德的影子,如伦理文学、人道主义文学等等。文体观考察了周作人自己比较看重的杂诗、八股文、日记与尺牍、文抄公体等体裁与风格,意在深入了解周作人文学思想的本质。文质观是在刘勰关于文与质关系论证的基础上提出的,这里主要是就“质”展开论述,包括文学与历史(含明末清初)、文学与科学、文学与哲学(自由主义的反讽主义者)、文学与心理(悲哀情结)等,按照韦勒克、沃伦的《文学理论》,实际上是文学的外部研究,用周作人自己的术语就是“杂文”,它们对周作人文学思想的形成和发展产生了很大的影响。
作为非主流甚或反动的作家,周作人的文学思想的研究不仅对历来的左派或革命的文学思想的研究起着某种制衡甚至纠偏的作用,而且会对当前文学思想的发展带来某些裨益的东西。“掐臂见血”式观念、生活主义、自由主义的反讽主义、文学与历史等等都在以前研究的基础上有所突破。周作人的文学思想上承陶渊明、金圣叹、秋水轩等有谐趣的优雅的脉络,同时受十八世纪唯理主义的影响,在文艺复兴的河床上流淌出一条中国文学现代化的自为之路。

Other Abstract

The idea and the work are two main points in Zhou Zuoren’s world. If we want to understand Zhou deeply,the two aspects should be both underlined. They link tightly and construct a spirit hall.
Zhou ties the idea and the work on the work、the literature、the style and the content. The work which is more formal and friendly in Zhou’s world is modern transition of traditional work idea. He regards the poem and novel as the work, but the literature is like a alien concept which have the burden of ideology, such as politics、moral、revolution and so on. Zhou who believes in Esperanto during the Five-Forth Movement contacts the literature with the humanism、the evolution、the new villages and presents the moral literary ideas in the
pre-forty period. Zhou observes the phenomena on the basis of the facts that are “the literature” is with some colors of the reality which is the popular ideas. During the thirties Zhou is absorbed in the ancient books, he is also called “the works-printed man” by people. On the other side, Zhou has his own thinking and researches about the novel and poem which show his suggestions the face of the style. Zhou pays more attentions to the content, because he studies many subjects which help him think about questions on the high place. The ideas can keep the broad space to the facts if we research the men and the world with it. In fact, literature is the 
container of the idea, that is to say, the idea is the symbol of the high-level literature.Chapter 1 analyzes the links between the work and the spirit, in which the spirit is laid on the important role. In the twenties, Zhou practices the literary idea of “Making the flood in the arm” during that hurry times.After the failure of the Revolutions, the intellectual begin the stronger development than the Five-forth period.
Zhou believes that the words don’t have any functions, so he is about to write the natural things for the slogan of
the own works. But these works are not the free things which have the great meanings. During the latter period Zhou strengthens the Confucians and the life which are the sound reasons in the moral practices. The literature,however, has many traces of the idea and the moral, for example, moral literature, humanism etc. Chapter 3 studies the poem、eight principles woks、the diary and letter、the works-printed and so forth and aims to understand the essence of his literary idea. The form and the content are based on the Liu Xie’s literary theory which lay emphasis on the latter, including the literature and the history、the literature and the science、the literature and the philosophy、the literature and the psychology and so on.. According to Literary Theory, they
are the outside research. That is Zhou’s “sophisticated works” which take the strong effect to the Zhou’s literary
ideas.
As a non-up to date or reactionary writer, the research of Zhou’s literary ideas not only balance the research of the literary ideas among the Left Group or revolutionary, but also bring some helpful things to the contemporary literary ideas. There are some aspects such as the idea of “Making the flood in the arm”、pursuing to the livelihood、liberalism irony、the literature and the history which are all stretched into a new step on the basis of the old research results. Influencing by the Chinese humorous graceful writers such as Tao Yuanming、Jin Shengtan、Qiu Shuixuan and European reasoning, Zhou’s literary ideas make a road of the modernize Chinese literature on the Renaissance riverbed.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/227456
Collection文学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
关峰. 周作人文学思想研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2006.
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