兰州大学机构库 >文学院
重塑民族想象的翅膀——20 世纪中国科幻小说研究
Alternative TitleRebuilding National Imagination: A Study of the 20th Century Chinese Science Fiction
Thesis Advisor常文昌
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword民族 20 世纪 中国科幻小说

科幻小说,作为架起文学与科学两种文化桥梁的艺术,作为关注科技发展对人类文化及更深层面影响的文学,是结合现代科技成就与文学意境的产物,它不仅能触发人类的想象力,更带给人们以强烈的科学启示。因此它被视为“民族想象力的翅膀”。在西方,科幻小说的发展已呈现出欣欣向荣的局面。但是,具有百年历史的中国科幻小说却命运多舛,长期遭受人们的误解、冷落和歧视,如今这种局面并未得到多少改观。这种现状背后,隐含着怎样的文化忧虑?本文正是基于这一思考,开始自己的论文命题。本文以 20 世纪中国科幻小说作为研究对象,采取纵向梳理与横向比较、文本分析与理论阐释相结合的方法,就科幻小说的美学特质、中国科幻小说的本土化特色及中国科幻小说的文学价值与创作得失等问题进行了较为系统、综合的研究。
论文由五部分构成。序言部分通过对科幻小说的界说,归纳其美学特质。认为科幻小说是科学与幻想相结合的文学产物。它在本质上既不是科学本身,也不是传统意义上的幻想,而是基于科学基础上的人类幻想,或以幻想形式表现出来的人们对科学精神的敬慕与向往。科学性和幻想性是科幻小说的基本美学特性。第一章对科幻小说的形成进行追根溯源。认为尽管科幻小说产生于近代科技,但它与古代传统幻想文学之间,并非没有联系。不过,受传统文化意识的制约,中国古代幻想文学并没有直接导向现代科幻小说的产生。第二章梳理 20 世纪中国大陆科幻小说的本土化进程,总结不同历史时期的创作风格: “科技强国”梦的寄托与失落,“科普少儿化”的科学主义畅想,反映社会现实的“成人化”探索及回归自我的“多元化”尝试。第三章对台湾和香港科幻小说的两种创作风格进行比较。认为台湾科幻小说的“民族风格架构”旨在提高作品艺术品位,但这样的文学理路带来的是科幻创作的曲高和寡。香港科幻却反其道而行之,为了拓展科幻发展的生存空间走“通俗化”之路,结果造成科幻小说审美特性的减弱,不过它们共同为丰富中国科幻小说的本土化特色做出了自己的贡献。第四章对科幻小说的文学价值进行审美批评与建构。认为由于科幻小说中的“科学”长期“超越”“小说”可能的美学范畴,结果导致文学幻想力的严重缺失。直接原因,来自科幻小说创作价值观念的偏颇,而造成这一偏颇的深层原因则是民族科学文化的落后和科学观念的缺乏。
本论文的创新之处是,对于 20 世纪中国科幻小说,不是作为一种孤立的文学存在进行封闭式研究,而是将其置于中国现当代文学发展序列中,以世界科幻小说发展的总体格局为参照,把握其美学特色。第一次站在反思传统文化的角度,以批判的眼光对 20 世纪中国科幻小说的文学价值进行审美批评与建构。找到制约中国科幻小说发展的根源,指出科幻小说与科学进步之间的必然联系。这对新世纪中国科幻小说的健康发展,具有重要的启发意义。

Other Abstract

Science fiction, as an art linking literature with science and a branch of literature showing concern for the development in science, is a combination of modern technology and literary conception. It can not only stimulate the human beings’ imagination but also excite inspirations in science. So it is considered as “the wings of a nation’s imagination”. Science fiction developed and flourished in the west but in China it had been misunderstood and discriminated in despite of the fact that it has had a history of more than one hundred years. Now this situation has not been changed much, and what is the connotative culture reason under this condition? For this reason, I select this problem as the theme of my dissertation. This paper has tried to research into the writing of science fiction in China in the 20th century, using the method that combines historical survey with latitudinal comparison, textual analysis with theoretical explanation and focusing on the aesthetic characteristics of Chinese science fiction, its localization, artistic values and achievements.
This thesis consists of five parts. The introduction defines the aesthetic features of science fiction. The author regards science fiction as a result of combining science and fiction. In essence, science fiction can neither be classified as science itself nor traditional fiction. Instead, it expresses mankind’ reverence and yearning for scientific spirit in the form of fiction. The spirit of science and the spirit of fiction are the two basic aesthetic features of science fiction. The first chapter traces back the origin of science fiction. The author denies its connection with ancient fantasy literature despite of its origins in the modern technology and, confined by the traditional definition of culture, Chinese ancient fantasy literature failed to have any direct impact on modern science fiction. The second chapter sorts out the localization of science fiction in the Chinese mainland in the 20th century by summarizing the different writing styles in different phases as follows: “the expectation and frustration of the dream” and “rejuvenating the country with science and technology”; scientific ideal of popular science targeting at children; as well as the adults’ probing reflecting the social reality; and the so-called pluralistic attempts of self regression. The third chapter compares the styles of science fiction in Taiwan and Hong Kong. In Taiwan’s science fiction, “the structure of national style” aims to enhance the artistic taste of the works, yet only makes science fiction too artistically abstract to be appreciated by the great mass. Hong Kong’s science fiction has taken on an opposite route. In order to explore science fiction in depth, the writers there have tried to popularize science fiction and, in so doing, disregarded its aesthetic value to some extent. However, they have, in this process, jointly made their contribution to enrich the localization of Chinese science fiction. The forth chapter criticizes and establishes the literature values of science fiction from an aesthetic angle. The author believes that science fiction has positioned itself beyond the aesthetic sphere of the novel for such a long time that its literary fantasy has been greatly damaged. The direct reason is the deviation of concept on science fiction’s value, whose root cause is the backwardness of national science and culture and the absence of scientific concept.
The thesis is innovative in that, instead of discussing the 20th century Chinese science fiction in an isolated manner, the author places it in the Chinese contemporary literature and defines its aesthetic features in the background of the development of global science fiction. This is a first attempt to appreciate and criticize science fiction through a reflection on the traditional culture. In the thesis, the author finds the source that restricts the development of science fiction in China and points out the necessary contact between science fiction and the advancement in science and technology. The author hopes this approach will contribute to the study of science fiction in the new century.

Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王卫英. 重塑民族想象的翅膀——20 世纪中国科幻小说研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2005.
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