兰州大学机构库 >文学院
新世纪纪实小说研究
Alternative TitleA Study on Documentary Fiction in the 21st Century
哈建军
Thesis Advisor敏春芳
2013-04-18
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword新世纪文学 纪实小说 实文化 真实诉求 叙事伦理
Abstract

纪实小说是指用纪实的手法,以真人真事为题材,对现实生活中人的生活经历、所见所闻、真实性情进行客观再现,对社会面貌、社会文化进行具象地呈现,从而塑造文学形象和表达主体感知的小说。纪实小说与虚构小说、非虚构小说、报告文学以及其他纪实作品有一定的区别,有些被标、列为报告文学和散文的作品,也属于本文所甄别研究的纪实小说。
纪实小说在新世纪大量出现,一是受了中国传统文化中“求实”、“求真”思想和“实学”传统的影响,主张人的劳动、行为和产品、成果具有实际功用,能积极地为人的存在与发展服务,这种思维被转化进文学,强化了当下文学纪实的必要性和功能特征。二是近半个世纪以来国外流行非虚构小说,国外的媒体和评论界对非虚构小说给予了积极的评价,很多非虚构小说获得了国家级奖项,在读者中引起了很大反响。这两个方面构成了纪实小说在新世纪发展壮大的主要因素。虚构和纪实是中国文学的两种创作方式,中国古代就有用纪实手法创作的史传文学和思想语录。在现代文学中,传记文学、报告文学、口述实录、游记以及大部分叙事散文均被划为纪实文学。进入新世纪之后,纪实小说的大量出现带来了纪实文学的审美转型,“纪实”由“报告”、“告知”走向了记录、呈现,赋予读者的审美意蕴也转向了反思与解构。这一审美指向建构在纪实小说的真实性基础上,纪实成了纪实小说的本质要素。作家在创作纪实小说时,势必要恪守作品的真实和作者的真实。作品的真实主要指题材内容与生活现实的高度一致,作品中的故事情节能与现实事件对应,作品中的“原型结构”与“生活原型”相符,作品中的时间、地点、人物、事件都符合生活事实。作者的真实指:作为表现生活感知的主体,通过回忆亲历事迹,或者通过采访调查和查阅文献,将生活事件转化为小说故事时,既保持客观、“中立”的立场,又适时、适度地表达出作家的主观情感和理性思辨;作者的真实情思和读者从作品中看到、感到的作者情思是一致的,作者的真实也是纪实小说艺术真实的一部分。作品的真实和作者情思的真实有时是通过作品文本中的“超文本”等“自明系统”来表现的,有时是通过“互文”文本来“照应”的。由此可见,纪实小说的艺术特征为:“客观性”、“真实性”、“进步性”、“关联性”、“综合性”、“非虚构性”、“具体性”、“自明性”。新世纪纪实小说通过不同的视角反思解构了中国文化和社会现实,作家在反映生活真实、保持作品的“纪实”性质时,在保证作品的故事性、趣味性、可读性、科学性时,尝试着选择了各种方法。论文以创作了系列纪实小说的杨显惠和李娟等为个案,
论析了新世纪作家反映现实生活的切入点和作家反思社会文化的不同角度。
总体上来说,新世纪作家用“纪实”方法反思和解构社会文化,与评论界对新世纪纪实小说的回应和评论一样,尚处于一个摭探阶段。由于目前尚缺系统而成熟的纪实小说创作理论和批评理论,评论者评论纪实小说的姿态和作家创作纪实小说的姿态较为相似,大都与中国的史传文学和纪实文学、国外的非虚构小说进行了比附。评论者从不同角度进行了评论,有些评论观点需要拓展、延伸和综合。结合国内评论者对纪实小说的评价和分析,论文总结了纪实小说的艺术价值和学术价值,可概括为:传递信息、促进思辨、证史补史、反驳虚假、探索新旨、延伸学理等。论文的最后,展望了纪实小说的发展趋势,阐释了纪实小说渐趋完善的未来远景。

Other Abstract

As a type of fiction, documentary fiction means to reappear objectively the life experience, anecdotes and true feelings of certain people, present figuratively the social change and cultural development, so that some literary images can be shaped and subject awareness is expressed. Although there are some differences among documentary fiction, fiction, non-fiction and reportage, some other reportages and prose works are within the scope of my study.
Two reasons lead to the developing and growing of documentary fiction in the 21st century. One is the thought of being realistic and pursuit of truth in Chinese traditional culture, which claims that human being’s labors, behaviors, products and achievements have the practical function and can serve the existence and development of human beings. When converted into the literature,it strengthens the necessity and functional characteristics of the Documentary Literature. The other is the positive evaluation given to the non-fiction by the medium abroad and the critics in recent nearly 50 years. Many national prizes awarded to non-fiction cause great repercussion among the readers’Fiction and non-fiction are two ways of literature creation, which were adopted in Chinese ancient historical biography and recorded in oral literature. In modern Chinese literature, biography, reportage,true record, travel notes as well as most narrative prose are classified as documentary fiction. After entering the new century, the spate of documentary fiction leads to its transformation of the aesthetics
appreciation, and the aesthetic connotation also turns to reflection and deconstruction. This aesthetic direction is based on the facility of the documentary fiction; and reality style becomes its essential. When writing non-fiction, writers are bound to abide the facticity of the works and the writers themselves, that is, theme must be highly consistent with the actualities of life, story line of the works must be corresponding with real events, archetypal structures must correspond to life prototype, and time, place, characters and
events in the works are in line with the facts of real life. When transforming the life events into non-fiction by recalling personal experience, interviewing or referring to the literature, writers keep a objective and neutral position, but convey their subjective emotion and rational thoughts timely and moderately. Writer’s thoughts are consistent to the thoughts gained by readers from works; the writer’s facticity is also part of the artistic facticity of documentary fiction. The facticity of the works and the writer’s thoughts sometimes is conveyed through the hypertext—a kind self-evidence system in the works, is sometimes referenced through the intertextuality. Thus it can be seen that objectivity, facticity, progressiveness, relationship, comprehensiveness, nonfiction, specificity and self-evidence are the artistic features of the documentary fiction in the 21st century, which has reflected and deconstructed the contemporary Chinese culture via a different perspective. Writers attempt to choose various methods for conveying the facticity of life, while keeping it interesting, readable and scientific. Taking Yang Xianhui’s and Li Juan’s documentary fiction as examples, the thesis looks into the entry point and different perspective for writers in the 21st century to reflect real and social culture In all, the documentary method used by writers in the 21st century is at an exploratory stage, which is similar to response and comments from the critics. Owing to the lack of a systematic and mature theory of documentary fiction creation and criticism, the postures of the critics and writers have not been established for futher reflecting and deconstructing social culture. Most are the common analogies among ancient Chinese historical biography, documentary fiction and foreign non-fiction. Critics often criticize them in different ways, but some viewpoints need expending, stretching and synthesizing. Combined with the evaluation and analysis of the domestic, the thesis summarizes the artistic and academic value, which can be summarized as the following: to convey information, to promote critical thoughts, to book and proof the history, to retort false, to probe the new order, and to stretch academic principle, etc. At last, the thesis prospects developing tendency of the documentary fiction, and illustrates the future vision of documentary fiction.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/227677
Collection文学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
哈建军. 新世纪纪实小说研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2013.
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