兰州大学机构库 >文学院
希伯来文化关联中论鲁迅在暴力面前的困境
Alternative TitleLu Xun’s Plight in the Face of Violence Relating to the Hebrew Culture
刘青汉
Thesis Advisor雷达
2006-04-06
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword希伯来文化 鲁迅 暴力 困境
Abstract

本课题旨在从希伯来文化与汉语文化的对观中,以跨文化眼光探讨鲁迅思想的一些构成因素。希伯来文明的重要因素与鲁迅精神的构成因素之间有着广泛而微妙的回应关系,如果把希伯来文明作为研究、思考和认知鲁迅的一个参照思想资源,如果在希伯来文化与汉语文化的回应中体察鲁迅,我们发现,鲁迅思想会显出更具活力的开放性、历时性和不同生存经验之间的共融性,鲁迅自身的价值意义就更加明显。
本课题立足于新的认知资源平台,探讨鲁迅在面对暴力存在时的心理状况、思想状况、生存经验状况、行动状况,从而体察和认识鲁迅面对暴力的基本态度、观念和精神质地,从而更好地继承、发扬和实践鲁迅精神。鲁迅自身与希伯来文明有关联,这种关联是一种思想关联而不是生命经验关联,是文化、理性和人性关联,而不是信仰和神性关联。就鲁迅自己而言,这种关联是主动的和积极的。面对暴力存在时,鲁迅更大程度站立中国文化背景,整个语境是中国历史、现实和人生。鲁迅的心理、精神和思想内涵复杂而沉重。鲁迅面对暴力存在的复杂心理至少有三个显在状态:一、否定、厌恶、警觉、躲避和揭穿之;二、期望和呼吁利用它来躯赶凶兽,驱除黑暗;三、进退维谷,茫然、困惑,无辞的言语向天呐喊。
在希伯来文化关照中看,鲁迅面对暴力的困境恰好有完备的相关注解。在希伯来文化中,不能使用暴力是其原创文化的一个命令,是律例、典章、诫命、法度。不能使用暴力是人生信念中的一个总然命题,一个未然命题,同时,是一个难题。同一个难题,鲁迅面对和希伯来人面对时因着各自心理资源和文化资源的不同,相应的行动和人生姿态就不同。而这中间,鲁迅问题昭示的文化互补的必要性显而易见。宽容是和解的一个重要前提。文化承担者的鲁迅的内在的宽容往往被解释者眼中的论争姿态遮蔽。希伯来文化和汉语文化中都有宽容的珍贵教训,鲁迅正是用他自己的热情、求真精神和呐喊不息的努力照亮着可贵的宽容。鲁迅是一个思想启蒙者,一个教育工作者,他呼唤内曜,吁请神疗救,而不是暴力的快刀斩乱麻。
鲁迅启蒙精神追求人的自由、尊严和平等,亦即追求人性的健全;希伯来文化更加注重通过信仰而实现人的自由、尊严和平等,亦即首先追求保障人性得以健全的神性。人以什么拯救人,上帝以什么拯救人,不同的精神资源和生命经验资源在鲁迅的思想领域有着基本的切合点。鲁迅在他生存时代的知识分子承担是执着地探询真理,鲁迅的追随者们的知识分子承担则首先是鲁迅承担,因为鲁迅是近现代以来中国思想的一座高峰,因为鲁迅自己已经构成了中国知识分子的一个思想资源。现代社会以来,高效的暴力已使彻底灭绝宇宙生命成为可能。 2 克肉杆菌毒素武器(BT),可灭掉 1 亿人; 2 克热杆菌可以毁灭一座巨型城市; 20 克大肠杆菌 DNA 分子与炭疽病基因合成的基因合成武器会使地球上 60 亿人在一夜之间灭绝。鲁迅面对暴力的问题是走向现代化的人类共同面临的问题,鲁迅给我们太多的启示。鲁迅照亮了暴力问题。因着鲁迅,因着希伯来文化的关照,我们可以较为清晰地看见,那些地域化的、临时的、苟且的、纷乱的、情绪化的所谓暴力的真理是可疑的和可以进一步探究的,我们可以较为清晰地看见,真正有益于人类的,经久、理性和普遍的真理是,不能过高地赞誉暴力,不能把人类得到幸福的希望更多地交付给暴力,而是应该防止和警戒暴力,而是应该更多地张扬爱与宽容,呼吁理性,崇尚科学,追求公义,努力实现人与人之间以及人类与宇宙自然之间的和谐与健康,努力使人类的精神生态、思想生态和生存生态朝着和平、和谐、幸福的方向发展。

Other Abstract

This essay aims to discuss some constituent elements in the thoughts of Lu Xun by comparing the Hebrew culture and the Chinese culture. Since there exists an extensive and delicate corresponding relation among the significant constituent elements from both the Hebrew civilization and the Lu Xun Spirit, given that the Hebrew civilization is regarded as a contrasting means when studying, reflecting and getting to know Lu Xun, and given that Lu Xun is to be observed when comparing the Hebrew culture and the Chinese culture, we tend to realize that the thoughts of Lu Xun appears to be more open with vitality, diachronic as well as blended in terms of different subsistence experiences, hence Lu Xun’s self value is more evident.
Based on the latest recognizing resources, Lu Xun’s psychology, thoughts, subsistence experiences and actions will be analyzed in the essay, thus observing and learning his basic attitude, outlooks and spirit essentials when facing violence in an effort to inherit, develop and implement the Lu Xun Spirit. Between Lu Xun and the Hebrew civilization there exists a correlation, which concerns thoughts rather than subsistence experiences, about culture, reason and humanity rather than belief and divinity. So far as Lu Xun himself is concerned, the correlation is voluntary and active.
Confronting the violence, Lu Xun, in a larger sense, view it from the Chinese cultural background which implies Chinese history, reality and life. His psychological, spiritual and connotation of thoughts is not only complicated but burdensome. He had three states of psychology at least. Firstly, negation, disgust, alert, escape and exposing it; Secondly, expecting and calling for them to drive away beasts and darkness; Thirdly, being in a dilemma, bewildered and confused, wordless battle crying.
Comparing with the Hebrew culture, Lu Xun has a perfect note when facing the plight of violence. In the Hebrew culture, non-violence is an order in its original culture, a law, an institution, a command and a standard. And it is a general proposition, a natural proposition, at the same time, a tough question. Lu Xun and the Hebrews had different reactions and attitudes when it comes to the identical difficult problems due to their different psychological and cultural resources. By this, the necessity of the cultural complementariness indicated by the Lu Xun Problem is self evident.
Tolerance is an important precondition for reconciliation. Lu Xun had been a culture undertaker, whose inherent tolerance has invariably been disguised and distorted as the image of a “contestation”, as the later explainers described. The two cultures share the precious instructions on tolerance. It was his enthusiasm, his spirit searching for truth and his unceasing efforts that had been lightening tolerance. Lu Xun was an enlightener other than an educator, advocating introspection, the spiritual therapy, rather than a hasty violent solution. Lu Xun’s enlightening spirit had been after the freedom, dignity and equality of human beings, that is the wholeness of humanity; in the same way, the Hebrew culture, while realizing man’s the freedom, dignity and equality, more emphasize approaching that goal by the way of belief, which also puts the aim of securing humanity’s wholeness through divinity on the top of its agenda. As to how man can be rescued by man himself and how God rescued man, there are some basic combinations in the realm of Lu Xun’s thoughts with its Hebrew counterpart despite their different resources of spirit as well as life experiences.
The undertaking of Lu Xun’s contemporary intellectuals was to explore the truth, and then, the undertakings of his followers was those of Lu Xun, for he had been regarded as a peak of thoughts in Chinese modern history, and more importantly, he had already established himself as a resource of thoughts for Chinese intellectuals. In modern society, it is very likely that the efficient violence are able to destruct the universe utterly. For instance, two gram of botulinum toxin weapons(BT) can kill 100 million people; two gram of streptobacillus are powerful enough to ruin a huge city; And twenty gram of the synthesized genes consisting of colibacillus DNA molecules and anthracnose will put six billion people to extinction within a night. The violent problems Lu Xun had been confronting is the one human beings who are striding toward modernization are facing. He has given us too many revelations and lightened the violent problems. Enlightened by both Lu Xun and the Hebrew culture, we are capable of visualizing comparatively clearly that those so-called “violence” characterized by its regionalization, temporariness, momentary ease, chaos and being emotionalized are skeptical and able to be further researched. And we also can picture without any ambiguousness that the genuine truth which is beneficial to human, durable, rational and universal is not just to sing high praise for violence or simply to transfer man’s hope of obtaining happiness to violence, but to guard and alert it, to more expend love and tolerance, to appeal rationality, to advocate science, to pursuit justice, to implement the man-to-man and man-to-universe harmony and health, and to push forward the ecology of spirit, thoughts and existence toward peace, harmony as well as happiness with great efforts.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/227764
Collection文学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘青汉. 希伯来文化关联中论鲁迅在暴力面前的困境[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2006.
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