兰州大学机构库 >文学院
晚清到1940年代中国汉语新诗的音乐性研究
Alternative TitleResearch on the Musicality of Chinese New Poetry from the Late Qing Dynasty till 1940s
张璐
Thesis Advisor程金城
2018-05-01
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword徒诗与歌诗 诗歌的现代性 语音构义 姿态节奏 音乐化
Abstract

长期以来,现代诗学对汉语新诗音乐性的探讨都主要聚焦于离开乐调而表现在文字本身的“徒诗”的音乐性;尽管近十几年来学界出现了对现代“歌诗”问题的关注,但迄今鲜有对中国现代歌诗音乐性的深入研究报道,这是一个值得深入探索的重要问题。本文在重新发掘整理相关史料和尊重前人研究成果的基础之上,试图突破现代诗学对诗歌音乐性现有的批评模式,将晚清到1940年代的白话“新徒诗”和“新歌诗”作为研究对象,探讨二者在现代化过程中形成的汉语新诗的音乐性。其中,本文所探讨的“歌诗”主要是可歌唱的文人诗,强调“歌性-诗性”与“合乐”的理想文类旨趣;而“新诗”并不专指“五四”以来的“新诗”,而是指晚清到1940年代中国知识分子在面对新事物、新观念时重新看待白话汉语诗歌而进行的新徒诗和新歌诗的创作实践。本文的资料来源于山东省博物馆、中央音乐学院、国家图书馆的珍贵馆藏资料,以及在台湾地区、英国、美国当地搜集到的一手资料。在这样的研究思路和视角下,一些之前诗学界鲜有涉及但却十分重要的问题就被包罗进来,而一些已被讨论的问题又重新获得了新的诠释。

本文的研究分为两大部分,第一部分是探究中国诗歌的音乐性传统及其核心因素。根据古文字语言学对“诗”、“志”、“兴”字的考辨、陈世骧有关中国文学的“抒情传统”、“原兴”等重要的古典诗学论说以及1980年代以来古代诗学对“歌诗”的研究成果,提出了将“兴”因素作为中国诗歌音乐性传统的核心和源动力;而中国诗歌的音乐性传统,正是在“兴”的作用下,通过“歌性-诗性”的音乐性语言进行以“言志”与“缘情”为“目的价值”的抒情活动;其原始形态“乐诗”在“音义分离”后,发展为具有语言音乐性的“徒诗”和延续“歌性-诗性”音乐性的“歌诗”两种形态。于是,汉语新诗的音乐性就是以“兴”为核心的诗歌音乐性在现代语境中对传统的继承与创造。这些结论正为本文在第二个部分讨论新诗的音乐性问题时,始终遵循的贯通古今的研究思路、将“新徒诗”与“新歌诗”相互应照的研究视角提供了理论依据。

第二个部分则回到汉语诗歌的现代性语境中,分别从晚清民初的歌诗“情境”、新徒诗“语音构义”的音乐性表现、姿态节奏与身体、新徒诗的音乐化与歌诗的现代化四个方面探讨了在晚清到1940年代,“新徒诗”与“新诗歌”在现代化过程中形成的各自发展又互相影响的中国汉语新诗的音乐性,得到主要结论如下。

首先,在晚清民初歌诗的两次“跨语际实践”中,诗歌的形式结构和感知框架都发生了现代性改变,生成了新的“讴歌”和“唱歌”;而这些同时兼具突破与矛盾的新歌诗正是这一时期具有改革意识的中国知识分子在面对新事物、“新音乐”的焦虑中,企图用新的歌诗创作来重建的一个新“情境”。晚清民初歌诗的跨语际实践对现代汉语诗歌音乐性的贡献与其暴露的问题同样重要,它召唤着一套完整的现代汉语诗歌的语言表达体系,能够让诗人在符合现代人的感知理解框架中进行诗意的表达。

其次,对“五四”到1940年代汉语新徒诗音乐性的讨论,除了关注遵从语法的格律押韵问题,更应该将音乐性的问题放置于汉语现代化的语境中,这就是在第二章和第三章中分别探讨的汉语新徒诗音乐性的“可发声性”和“可体现性”。第二章通过考察从晚清到1940年代汉语语法由建构到反思过程中的争论与论述,分析出“五四”到1940年代的汉语新徒诗如何在“兴”因素的引导下挖掘汉字的“可发声性”,将“声音”与“意义”进行创造性地连接,在语音中呈现出“音韵的绘声状物”、“反复循环的音韵调式”和“语法里听不见的旋律”的三种音乐性表现。第三章则从探究现代诗歌语言中的“姿态示意”出发,综合古典和现代诗学理论和创作观念中有关诗歌创作与身体节奏的一系列论说,提出了在语音的“声音”与“意义”之外,用身体来体现“姿态节奏”的新诗音乐性的“可体现性”——这就将汉语新徒诗的音乐性问题进一步转化为创作过程中在“兴”的发生现场,以身体“应感”为核心的创作譬喻,使诗歌本身体现出诗人在时间与空间中有关肌理与生命的体验。这就能够更深刻地去重新体会1930-1940年代以卞之琳、冯至、穆旦、臧克家、田间为代表的象征派、现代派、七月派诗人在身体“应感”层面的感“时”作“诗”。

再次,针对“新诗不能唱”的问题,第四章中详细探讨了1920-1940年代汉语新徒诗的“音乐化”的原理,这就不再是“依曲填词”的“入乐”,而是强调以“语音的姿态”为中介回到“应感”层面,通过“量体裁衣”的方式进行的起“兴”创作;而这个音乐化创作过程本身也促进着这一时期以“中国艺术歌曲”为主的新歌诗的现代化发展,由晚清民初的“模仿阶段”进入了新的“发展阶段”。需要说明的是,虽然“五四”以来的现代作曲技法和观念解决了白话诗不能“唱”的问题,但本文强调的是建立在“姿态节奏”层面新徒诗音乐性的“可转化性”,而无意强调诗歌音乐化是对徒诗艺术性的增强或前者是后者的更高级形式。

最后,本文在汉语诗歌现代性的语境中,探讨在“新徒诗”和“新歌诗”的现代化互动发展中形成的汉语新诗的音乐性,其实也是对二十世纪以来汉语如何向世界发声问题的积极回应。现代汉语新诗的音乐性更可以理解为一种常含的抒情“姿态性”,它能够被机体倾听或阅读,能够被音乐转化,甚至也能被舞蹈、美术等其他各类艺术转化,是能够超越时空为全人类所共感而兴发的。

本文的研究阐释了被现有诗学批评遮蔽的另一种现代诗歌的音乐性,或许可以为中国现代诗歌的批评提供一个更完整的画面;同时,本文立足于诗学,综合了音乐学、语言学、文字学、修辞学、语法学、心理学等进行的讨论,可以为中国现代汉语新诗研究开辟新的阐释空间。

Other Abstract

For a long time, modern Chinese poetics has discussed the musicality of poetic forms in terms of a musical sensibility that inheres within the text itself, one that does not have an immediate relationship to a particular oral tune. The field has defined such works as “textual poems” (tushi). Although scholarly attention has been paid to the issue of modern “singable poetry” (geshi) in the past decade, there have been few if any in-depth discussions of the musicality of modern singable poetry, an important issue that deserves further exploration. This dissertation sets out to re-examine the concept and practice of singable poetry, rediscovering a wide array of relevant historical materials in order to challenge the notion of a singular trajectory in the development of Chinese poetry. This dissertation attempts to break through this singular mode of criticism in modern poetics, focusing on the vernacular “new textual poetry” and “new singable poetry” from the late Qing Dynasty to the 1940s, exploring the musicality of Chinese new poetry in the process of modernization. In this essay, the “singable poetry” refers to singable poems by literati, emphasizing the ideal status of the concepts of “musico-poetic” and “intimacy/harmony” (heyue). The “new poetry”, however, does not only refer to the Chinese new poetry since the May 4th Movement, but refers to different “new” practices carried out by Chinese intellectuals when confronting modern things and modern concepts during the late Qing till the 1940s. Historical materials used in this dissertation are rich and reliable, including materials from the Shandong Museum, the Central Conservatory of Music, and the National Library, as well as primary sources collected in Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In engaging deeply with these sources, important but rarely discussed issues while receive extensive examination, while some issues that have received past scholarly attention will be re-interpreted along new lines. 

This dissertation can be divided into two parts. The first part explores the musical tradition of Chinese poetry and its core elements. The first part of the dissertation grounds itself in studies of the primary etymon for “shi” (诗), “zhi” (志) and “xing” (兴) by archaic linguistics, as well as the classical poetic theories of Chen Shih-hsiang, i.e. his understanding of “the lyrical tradition” and “genetic significance of Xing.” It puts forward the concept that the primordial musical elements of Chinese poetry is “xing.” The musical tradition of Chinese poetry refers to the lyrical activities that express “mind articulation” (yanzhi) and “feeling expression” (yuanqing) with the aim of “purposiveness” through the “musico-poetic” musical language under the influence of “xing”. Its original form, “word-music” (yueshi), has developed into two forms after the “separation of sound and meaning.” The first form is “textual poetry” with textual musicality, the other is “singable poetry,” which has inherited the nature of the “musico-poetic” of its origin. As such, the musicality of new Chinese poetry has “xing” at its core, but “xing” is inherited and re-articulated within the context of modern China’s particular historical experience. Such a discussion provides the theoretical premise for the rest of the dissertation, laying the conceptual foundation for the integration of the past and present, arguing for a dually-active-relationship between the two forms of poetry: textual poetry and singable poetry.

The second part discusses, respectively, four significant aspects of the musicality of modern Chinese poetry in the modern context during the late Qing Dynasty till 1940s, doing so in terms of the “‘circumstances’ of singable poetry in the late Qing Dynasty and the early period of the Republic of China”; “the musical performance by ‘phonetic construction of meaning’ of the new textual poetry”; “the gestural rhythm and the body”; and “the melodising of new textual poetry and the modernization of singable poetry.” Major conclusions to emerge out of such examinations are as follows:

First, in terms of the “translingual practice” of poetry in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China, the modern structure of poetry has undergone a significant transformation, generating two new forms of singable poetry in terms of “ouge” and “changge”. In fact, the new singable poetry, with its breakthroughs and contradictions, is a new “situation” created by revolutionary Chinese intellectuals who suffered from anxiety when confronting the new things and “new music”. The contribution of the translingual practice of poetry to the musicality of modern Chinese poetry is just as important as the problem it exposes during this period. It evokes a complete system of linguistic expression for modern Chinese poetry that enables poets to create poetic expressions suitable to their perceptions of the modern world they confront.

Secondly, rather than focuse on the rules of rhymes and poetic forms based on grammar, the issue of the musicality of Chinese new poetry during the May 4th Movement to the 1940s should be discussed in the context of the modernization of the Chinese language. In order to do so, the second and the third chapters discusses respectively two different dimensions of the musicality of Chinese new poetry, namely, “soundability” and “embodying”. The second chapter analyzes the debates and discussions in the process of the construction and reflection of Chinese grammar from the late Qing Dynasty to the 1940s. It explores how the Chinese new poems from the May 4th to the 1940s excavated the nature of “soundability” of Chinese characters under the influence of the central concept of “xing,” creatively connecting “sound” with “meaning” by presenting three kinds of phonic performance: “phonic depicting and symbolizing”, “repeatedly circulating melody”, and “inaudible melodies in Chinese grammar”. The third chapter begins from an exploration of the “gestural significance” of modern poetic verses and a summarization of the series of classical and modern poetical theories related to the creation of poetry and physical rhythm. In doing so, the third chapter examines the concept of the “gestural rhythm” embodied by the human body, tracking how the new poetry “embodied” such rhythms in its linguistic constructions. This examination further transforms the issue of musicality into a creational metaphor centered on the “sense” of the body in the occurrence of “xing”. Thereby, poetry itself could embody the sensibilities and textures of lived experience within modern time and space. Such a perspective opens up a new understanding of the temporal and spatial dynamics of Symbolist, Modernist, and “July” School poems produced by Bian Zhilin, Feng Zhi, Mu Dan, Zang Kejia and Tian Bian in the 1930s and 1940s.

Thirdly, in regard to the issue that “new poems can't sing”, the fourth chapter explores the question of the “melodising” of new Chinese textual poems in the 1920s and 1940s. Rather than examining how poems “entered music” by “setting lyrics/poem to music” (yiqu tianci), instead, this dissertation emphasizes that musical creation in poetry should be understood by returning to the level of the “sense” produced by the “phonic gesture” as a mediating agent. Here, the technique of “tailoring” (liangti caiyi) is used to give expression to Xing within creative practice. Meanwhile, this process of melodising also promotes the modernization of new singable poetry dominated by the “Chinese art song” during this period. As a result, the new singable poems transformed from the “stage of the imitation” in the early Qing and early Republic of China to the “stage of development”. It should be noted that although the techniques and concepts of modern composition since the May 4th solved the problem that vernacular poetry could not “sing,” this dissertation emphasizes the “convertibility” of the musicality of new textual poetry on the level of “gestural rhythm”, and by no means states that melodising would enhance the poetic artistry or that the former is a more advanced form of the latter.

Finally, exploring the musicality of Chinese new poetry formed in the interactive development of “new tushi” and “new geshi” in the context of the modernity of Chinese poetry, this dissertation positively responds to the issue of how the Chinese language has made a sound to the world since the 20th century. The musicality of modern Chinese poetry can be further understood as a lyrical “gestural” that can be listened to or read by the body, be transformed into music, and even be transformed into other arts such as dance, painting, etc., being shared and expressed by all humanity by transcending time and space.

The research presented by this dissertation will help bring about a more complete picture of modern Chinese poetry, illuminating a different beauty consigned to the shadows in current poetic criticism. Through this new perspective, the dissertation grounds itself not only in poetics, but also musicology, linguistics, philology, rhetoric, grammar, as well as psychology, which are combined in an interdisciplinary manner to provide a new interpretation of the musicality of modern Chinese new poetry.

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Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/227849
Collection文学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张璐. 晚清到1940年代中国汉语新诗的音乐性研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2018.
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