兰州大学机构库 >文学院
论藏族作家的汉语文学
Alternative TitleDiscussing the Chinese Literature Of Zang Minority Writers
徐美恒
Thesis Advisor赵学勇
2006-10-11
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword当代藏族作家 藏族汉语文学评论 民族文学风格 文学的时代 文化意义
Abstract

长期以来,我国现当代文学研究界一直把藏族文学包括其他少数民族文学作为民间文学的一部分排除在“中国现当代文学史”正史之外,直到20 世纪 90 年代,先有吴重阳的《中国现代少数民族文学概论》把现代文学史上的少数民族作家分离出来研究,首开文学史写作的作家民族身份视野,但只是从既有的文学史资料中做了分类剥离,民族文学史理论体系的建设观念尚不明确,比如,既没有论述到一位藏族作家,也没有讨论藏族的民间文学。后有特•赛因巴雅尔主编的《中国少数民族当代文学史》显示了较全面的少数民族文学史构建意图,但观察文学的视角不局限于汉语文学。接着陈思和主编的《中国当代文学史教程》进一步从“进入汉语世界的多民族文学”角度注意到了少数民族的民间文学和作家文学两个系统,并从“中国当代文学史”的高度把握少数民族文学,可惜只是用“民间精神”的“望远镜”做了浮光掠影的观察。 2004 年,丁帆主编出版了《中国西部现代文学史》,对少数民族作家文学和少数民族民间文学现象多有深入讨论,但他选择的是地域文学史角度,讨论的对象超越了少数民族文学范围。也就是说,中华人民共和国成立以来,少数民族的汉语文学已经取得辉煌成就,但一直没有引起学术界专门的关于少数民族汉语文学的深入研究,目前还没有产生一部中国少数民族汉语文学史研究论著。本论文的研究有意于先从当代藏族汉语文学入手,填补这一空白。
所谓藏族文学,需要从“两个部分”和“三个层面”进行综合观察,才能完整把握其含义。“两个部分”是指藏族文学分为民间文学和作家文学两部分。“三个层面”的含义包括:第一,从内容看,是以表现藏族的社会生活为主的文学;第二,从创作主体看,文学源出的主体必须是藏族身份,包括藏族作家个人创作的文学和藏民族集体创作的流传于民间的口传文学;第三,从文学的语言载体观察,藏族文学的原创语言主要是藏语和汉语两个系统。其中的汉语文学系统,包括藏族作家最初用汉语创作的作品和最初用藏语创作后来翻译成汉语的作品,也包括用现代汉语记录整理的藏民族口传文学。本文主要讨论藏族作家在中华人民共和国成立后创作的现代汉语文学。也就是说,“当代藏族作家的现代汉语文学”是本论文的研究核心。这个研究对象由“三个层次”构成一个有机整体,即:在内容上是以表现藏族的社会生活为主的文学;创作主体主要是以中华人民共和国公民身份存在的具有藏族少数民族身份的作家;语言载体是以五四白话文运动、国语运动以来,又经普通话规范的现代汉语。在中国文学的现代文学史时期,诞生了藏族作家的现代汉语文学。根据目前发掘的资料,具有“现代性意义”的藏族作家文学发端于根敦群培(1905~1951),而最早的藏族作家现代汉语文学是格达活佛(1902~1950)创作于 20世纪 30年代的具有无产阶级革命倾向的“红色诗歌”。藏族作家汉语文学的真正发展是在中华人民共和国成立以后,特别是 80 年代以来,藏族的“三代作家”共同打造了藏族文学的繁荣景象。在 50~70 年代末这段历史时期,藏族文学的主要成就是诗歌。以擦珠•阿旺洛桑、饶阶巴桑、伊丹才让等为代表的第一代藏族诗人,以饱满的政治热情发出了赞美社会主义新时代的声音,表达了藏族人民的愿望。但是,他们的诗歌正如那个时代一样,在富有政治激情和理想色彩的同时,“科学的民主的”精神和理性光辉显得严重缺乏,甚至出现了背离“民主的大众的”倾向而依附于一时的政治话语模式,使文学沦落为彻底的政治工具,因而丧失了民族文学的特有风格。从 80 年代开始,藏族文学进入全面发展的新时代,诗歌、小说、散文三种文学样式比翼齐飞,文学在文化意义上也走出过去单一的政治模式化倾向,转向民族民主的大众化多元发展道路。在这个文化转型过程中,诗人们以敏锐的触角最先感知时代变革的气息,以战斗的勇气和果敢的行动,用诗歌奏响了藏民族文化重建的号角;小说家们紧随其后,以迅猛崛起的创作形势铸就了文化转型的泱泱大观,促成了民族文化重建的纵深发展局面;散文创作的新姿态姗姗来迟,但也为藏族文学的民族民主的大众化发展拓展出情真意切、细微感人的一片新天地。
本文在论述过程中,考虑到文学的民族文化比较意义,延伸探讨了汉藏文化自古以来的交流历史,使当代藏族作家的汉语文学有了深厚的文化基础支持;考虑到藏族作家汉语文学的民族特性实现问题,论述了民族通用语即现代汉语对藏族文学的传播价值,证明了当代藏族作家的汉语文学发展符合藏族文化进步发展的现实要求;考虑到文学的时代文化代表意义,尽量借用已有的中国文学史理论体系观察藏族文学的发展,把握藏族文学的国家时代文化特征和基于藏民族独特社会历史进程的民族文化属性;考虑到作家风格体现民族文化个性,以文学体裁为块状结构,从诗歌、小说、散文三个方面讨论了藏族文学的独特民族风格表现内容;考虑到藏族文学的民族文化建设意义,从具体作家创作风格变化和不同作家的作品在体现时代特征上的统一性两个方面,归纳出藏族文学自 80 年代以来民族民主意识的觉醒和文化的多元发展态势,揭示了这种依附政治话语到走向大众化转变的回归人民性本质,以及它与整个国家文化转型的同步发展,由此证明社会主义制度最终促成了藏族文化的跨越式发展,保障了多民族文化的共同进步与繁荣。

Other Abstract

The Zang minority literature and other ethnic minority literature have been excluded, as part of folklore, from the official history of Chinese contemporary and modern literature until the 1990s when Wu-Chongyang focused on those minority writers in his book entitled A Survey of Minority Literature in Modern China. It was the first time in the research of history of modern Chinese literature that the minority identities of those writers were stressed. But in the book there is not a definite theoretical system for the history of ethnic minority literature, e.g. no Zang minority writers or Zang folklores are discussed. Afterwards, Te.Sinbayer (Inner Mongolian), as the editor in chief, published The History of Contemporary Minority Literature in China, which intends to build an overview of the history of ethnic minority literature, but his pespective goes beyond the Chinese literature. Then Chen-Sihe, as the editor in chief, published A Course on the History of Contemporary Chinese Literature, which further discusses the two systems of folk literature and professional writings from the points of view of “multi-nationality in Chinese literature”, but fails to make in-depth observations. In 2004, Ding-Fan, as the editor in chief, turned out History of Modern Literature in Western China, and made further study of the minority writers and the minority folklore, but his distinct point of view of history of regional literature goes beyond the limits of ethnic minority literature. It is obvious that though great achievements have made regarding the Chinese literature of the minority nationality, there has not been thorough research on Chinese literature among minorities and there has not been a work concerning the research into the Chinese literature of Chinese minorities since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. The dissertation is intended to fill up the vacancy in literature by research on contemporary Han literature of Zang minority.
A comprehensive observation of the Zang minority literature from Two Parts and Three Layers helps to achieve a complete understanding of its essence. Two Parts mean folk literature and professional writings in the Zang minority literature. Three Layers include as follows: first, it is literature mainly dealing with the social life of the Zang minority; second, it is literature with Zang origin, including the personal literary works created by the professional Zang minority writers and the oral literature created by the Zang minority community; third, it is literature created originally in two system of both Zang language and Chinese language. The Chinsese literary system includes works created by the Zang minotiry writers in Chinese lauguage and those translated into Chinese language Zang language, and those oral Zang literature recorded in modern Chinese language. The dissertation is principally centered on the modern Chinese literature created by the Zang minority writers since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. In a word, the core of the research of the desertation is involved with modern Chinese literature of contemporary Zang minority writers. The objects of the research form a organic whole consisting of three layers: in terms of content, it covers social life of Zang minority;in terms of creator, it is created mainly by the Zang minority writers as a PRC citizen; in terms of language, it is written by modern Chinese language which came into being since May Fourth Vernacular Chinese Movement, was developed in Chinese Language Movement, and standardized by Mandarin. It is in the modern period of Chinese literary history that modern Chinese literatur  of the Zang minority came into being. According to the existing uncovered materials, the Zang minority writers with sense of modernism started with Gen Dun Qun Pei (1905~1951), but the pioneering writer of modern Chinese literature of the Zang minority is Living Buddha Ge Da(1902~1950) with his Red Poetry with the intention of proletarian revolution in the 1930s. The rapid development of the Chinese literature by the Zang minority writers has been seen since 1949 and especially the 1980s. The three generations of the Zang minority writers have created the flourishing Zang minority literature. Poetry is the principal achievement of the Zang minority literature in the period between the 1950’s and the 1970’s. Cazhu.AwangLuoSang, RaoJieBaSang, YiDanCaiRang and some others formed the first generation poets of the Zang minority, and they, with full enthusiasm, extended their appreciation for the new era of socialism and expressed the wishes of the Zang minority. But their poetry, just like the special era, was full of political enthusiasm and ideal aspects, yet short of the spirit of science and democracy and the glory of rationality. The poetry at that time even deviated from democracy and the public to follow the pattern of political speech and the literature of the time was doomed to the political tools, completely devoid of the unique style of the national literature. Since the 1980s, Zang minority literature began a new time of balanced and overall development of poetry, fiction and prose. Literature has turned away from the single pattern of political orientation and into the popular multi-pattern of nationality and democracy. In this transitional period, poets, with their keen senses, first perceived the great changes of the time, and with their resolution and daring, they began to reconstruct the national culture of the Zang minority. After poets, the novelists followed closely and started a new magnificent picture of cultural transformation and further development of national culture. The late coming of prose writing has opened up a new world for the Zang minority literature to develop for the purpose of democracy and popularity. In the process of writing, this desertation, taking into consideration the significance of comparasin between different ethnic cultures, has extended its exploration to history of communication between Han and Zang minority culture since ancient times, and helped to lay a solid cultural foundation for the Chinese literature of the Zang minority wirters. Considering the national traits embodied in the Chinese literature created by the Zang minority writers, the desertation discusses the value of modern Chinese languge in the spread of the Zang minority literature, and proves that the development of Chinese literature by the Zang minority writers agrees with the progress of the Zang minority culture. In terms of the cultural connotation of literature, the desertation has made use of the existing theoretical system of Chinese literary history to examine the Zang minority literature, and have a better understanding of the cultural traits ofthe Zang minority literature and the unique national cultural traits found in the social and historical progress of the Zang minority.
Considering that a writer’s style is the reflection of his national cultural traits, the desertation, according to different literary genres of poety, fiction and prose, deals with the unique national features revealed in the Zang minority literarure. Taking into account the construction of national culture of the Zang minority literature, the desertation intends to deduce the multiple development and awareness of national and democratic consciousness since the 1980s as reflected in the Zang minority literature, according to the changes of writing styles of specific writers and the reflection of the era by by different writers. It also reveals the essence of transformation from the literature of political patterns to literature of the public, and the synchronic development of this transformation with the overall transformation of the national culture. Finally, it proves that the socialist system ultimately helps to promote the speedy development of the Zang minority culture and guarantee the common progress and prosperity of multi-national culture.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/228191
Collection文学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
徐美恒. 论藏族作家的汉语文学[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2006.
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