The Zang minority literature and other ethnic minority literature have been excluded, as part of folklore, from the official history of Chinese contemporary and modern literature until the 1990s when Wu-Chongyang focused on those minority writers in his book entitled A Survey of Minority Literature in Modern China. It was the first time in the research of history of modern Chinese literature that the minority identities of those writers were stressed. But in the book there is not a definite theoretical system for the history of ethnic minority literature, e.g. no Zang minority writers or Zang folklores are discussed. Afterwards, Te.Sinbayer (Inner Mongolian), as the editor in chief, published The History of Contemporary Minority Literature in China, which intends to build an overview of the history of ethnic minority literature, but his pespective goes beyond the Chinese literature. Then Chen-Sihe, as the editor in chief, published A Course on the History of Contemporary Chinese Literature, which further discusses the two systems of folk literature and professional writings from the points of view of “multi-nationality in Chinese literature”, but fails to make in-depth observations. In 2004, Ding-Fan, as the editor in chief, turned out History of Modern Literature in Western China, and made further study of the minority writers and the minority folklore, but his distinct point of view of history of regional literature goes beyond the limits of ethnic minority literature. It is obvious that though great achievements have made regarding the Chinese literature of the minority nationality, there has not been thorough research on Chinese literature among minorities and there has not been a work concerning the research into the Chinese literature of Chinese minorities since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. The dissertation is intended to fill up the vacancy in literature by research on contemporary Han literature of Zang minority.
A comprehensive observation of the Zang minority literature from Two Parts and Three Layers helps to achieve a complete understanding of its essence. Two Parts mean folk literature and professional writings in the Zang minority literature. Three Layers include as follows: first, it is literature mainly dealing with the social life of the Zang minority; second, it is literature with Zang origin, including the personal literary works created by the professional Zang minority writers and the oral literature created by the Zang minority community; third, it is literature created originally in two system of both Zang language and Chinese language. The Chinsese literary system includes works created by the Zang minotiry writers in Chinese lauguage and those translated into Chinese language Zang language, and those oral Zang literature recorded in modern Chinese language. The dissertation is principally centered on the modern Chinese literature created by the Zang minority writers since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. In a word, the core of the research of the desertation is involved with modern Chinese literature of contemporary Zang minority writers. The objects of the research form a organic whole consisting of three layers: in terms of content, it covers social life of Zang minority;in terms of creator, it is created mainly by the Zang minority writers as a PRC citizen; in terms of language, it is written by modern Chinese language which came into being since May Fourth Vernacular Chinese Movement, was developed in Chinese Language Movement, and standardized by Mandarin. It is in the modern period of Chinese literary history that modern Chinese literatur of the Zang minority came into being. According to the existing uncovered materials, the Zang minority writers with sense of modernism started with Gen Dun Qun Pei (1905~1951), but the pioneering writer of modern Chinese literature of the Zang minority is Living Buddha Ge Da(1902~1950) with his Red Poetry with the intention of proletarian revolution in the 1930s. The rapid development of the Chinese literature by the Zang minority writers has been seen since 1949 and especially the 1980s. The three generations of the Zang minority writers have created the flourishing Zang minority literature. Poetry is the principal achievement of the Zang minority literature in the period between the 1950’s and the 1970’s. Cazhu.AwangLuoSang, RaoJieBaSang, YiDanCaiRang and some others formed the first generation poets of the Zang minority, and they, with full enthusiasm, extended their appreciation for the new era of socialism and expressed the wishes of the Zang minority. But their poetry, just like the special era, was full of political enthusiasm and ideal aspects, yet short of the spirit of science and democracy and the glory of rationality. The poetry at that time even deviated from democracy and the public to follow the pattern of political speech and the literature of the time was doomed to the political tools, completely devoid of the unique style of the national literature. Since the 1980s, Zang minority literature began a new time of balanced and overall development of poetry, fiction and prose. Literature has turned away from the single pattern of political orientation and into the popular multi-pattern of nationality and democracy. In this transitional period, poets, with their keen senses, first perceived the great changes of the time, and with their resolution and daring, they began to reconstruct the national culture of the Zang minority. After poets, the novelists followed closely and started a new magnificent picture of cultural transformation and further development of national culture. The late coming of prose writing has opened up a new world for the Zang minority literature to develop for the purpose of democracy and popularity. In the process of writing, this desertation, taking into consideration the significance of comparasin between different ethnic cultures, has extended its exploration to history of communication between Han and Zang minority culture since ancient times, and helped to lay a solid cultural foundation for the Chinese literature of the Zang minority wirters. Considering the national traits embodied in the Chinese literature created by the Zang minority writers, the desertation discusses the value of modern Chinese languge in the spread of the Zang minority literature, and proves that the development of Chinese literature by the Zang minority writers agrees with the progress of the Zang minority culture. In terms of the cultural connotation of literature, the desertation has made use of the existing theoretical system of Chinese literary history to examine the Zang minority literature, and have a better understanding of the cultural traits ofthe Zang minority literature and the unique national cultural traits found in the social and historical progress of the Zang minority.
Considering that a writer’s style is the reflection of his national cultural traits, the desertation, according to different literary genres of poety, fiction and prose, deals with the unique national features revealed in the Zang minority literarure. Taking into account the construction of national culture of the Zang minority literature, the desertation intends to deduce the multiple development and awareness of national and democratic consciousness since the 1980s as reflected in the Zang minority literature, according to the changes of writing styles of specific writers and the reflection of the era by by different writers. It also reveals the essence of transformation from the literature of political patterns to literature of the public, and the synchronic development of this transformation with the overall transformation of the national culture. Finally, it proves that the socialist system ultimately helps to promote the speedy development of the Zang minority culture and guarantee the common progress and prosperity of multi-national culture.