兰州大学机构库 >文学院
甘肃天祝县汉语方言语法研究
Alternative TitleOn the Grammar of the Dialect in Tianzhu County Gansu Province
宋珊
Thesis Advisor敏春芳
2017-03-01
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword天祝方言 词法 句法 语法比较 语言接触
Abstract

天祝藏族自治县位于河西走廊东端,按照《中国语言地图集》(1987)中的分法,天祝县汉语方言(后文简称“天祝方言”)属于兰银官话河西片。本文以语言接触理论为指导,对天祝汉语方言的构词法、词类、句式和语序类型进行初步探析,描写了汉语和少数民族语言接触下天祝汉语方言的基本语言面貌,并且试图通过一些特殊的语言现象揭示天祝汉语方言的语法特点。论文主要包括以下几个部分:绪论部分,主要介绍了天祝县的地理人口、历史沿革、语言概况以及本文的选题缘由、研究现状、研究方法和语料来源。第一章构词法重点探讨重叠和词缀的特点。重叠部分,研究了天祝方言名词、动词、形容词的重叠形式,发现天祝方言中动词的重叠形式有AABB和ABAB两种,如“甩甩嗒嗒”、“估摸估摸”等。词缀部分,描写了天祝汉语方言的词缀“老”、“尕”、“阿”、“子”、“头”、“娃子”、“们”的用法,着重考察了特色鲜明的前缀“尕”和后缀“们”。西北方言里的“尕”是一个很特殊的前缀,“尕”在天祝方言中的使用频率也很高,不仅可以“表小表爱”,它的词义范围也随之扩大,还可以表示“蔑视”、“警告”的附加意义。在天祝方言的后附成分中重点探析了“们”的用法,比较特殊的是非指人名词后跟“们”既可以表达一种类指,也可以表示一类抽象事物。第二章词类以语法、语义、语用三个平面为视角,对天祝方言的代词、副词、介词以及助词进行分类研究。代词部分,对“那”、“傢”、“他”构成的单数第三人称指称形式做了细致地区分,详细描写了依据功能划分的六类指示代词和七类疑问代词。副词部分,从天祝方言的副词体系中选取了“胡嘟”、“下茬”、“一挂”、“可价”、“哈吧”等一些具有突出方言色彩的词进行研究。介词部分,从天祝方言的介词体系中选取了“连、投、投到、照”等独具特色的词语分析其用法。助词部分突出天祝方言里最特殊的一类体貌助词,探究了天祝方言中使用频率很高的两种语言形式“上”、“下”,分析它们作为体貌助词时的特殊用法。第三章着重研究了天祝方言中具有典型性的两类特殊句式“把”字句和“给”字句。分析了这两类句式比较特殊的用法,非处置式“把”字句只是一个提宾标记,可以放在主语前起强调作用,只表示祈使或称述,没有处置意义;“给3”在天祝方言中作为一个体标记置于句末,可以表达完成和实现两种语法功能。第四章主要研究天祝方言的语序类型,依据Greenberg的16个参项,从天祝方言的语言事实出发,选择了具有代表性的9项进行分类研究,揭示了天祝县汉语方言的语序特征。研究结果表明,天祝方言中VO语序和OV语序共存,但是VO语序是基本语序,在部分语序参项上,受到少数民族语言的影响,OV语序也较为常见,比如小句成分语序OV、后置词、附置词短语前置于核心动词、助动词位于主要动词之后、后置从属连词的广泛使用等等。

Other Abstract

Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County is located in the eastern end of the Hexi Corridor, in accordance with the "Language Atlas Chinese" (1987),Tianzhu dialect belongs to LAN Yin Mandarin dialect . In terms of the national constitution, the proportion of the population, Tianzhu Chinese dialect is of great significance. Based on the language contact theory, we preliminarily investigated the lexical, syntactic and lexical category, word order types of Tianzhu Chinese dialect , described the Chinese and Tibetan Languages contact basic language features in Tianzhu dialect, and tries to introduce some special language phenomenon reveals the grammatical features of Chinese dialects in tianzhu. This paper also tries to make some analysis of the grammatical phenomena influence by Tibetan in the dialect of Tianzhu . This paper mainly studies the following problems:The introduction mainly introduce the geography,population,history, language of Tianzhu County, and the overview of the topics of reason, research status, research methods and data sources.
The first chapter focuses on the characteristics of reduplication and affix. We found that there are two kinds of verb reduplication forms in Tianzhu dialect naming AABB and ABAB , such as "甩甩嗒嗒" and "估摸估摸" etc.. In the description of the affix, The affix in Tianzhu includes "老", "尕", "阿", "子", "头", "娃子" "们" etc.. In Tianzhu dialect of the attached key components of the "们" usage, especially non personal noun followed by "们" can express a variety of means, including a kind of abstract things.The second chapter mainly studies the pronoun of Tianzhu dialect including "那", "傢", "他" ,detailed description of six kinds of demonstrative pronouns and seven types of interrogative pronouns according to the function division .In addition, we discusses some special words in Tianzhu Chinese dialect , including adverbs“胡嘟”、“下茬”、“一挂”、“可价”、“哈吧” ,prepositions“连、投、投到、照”as well as auxiliary word “上”、“下”.The third chapter mainly discusses the the two kinds of special sentence patterns, "把" and "给". No disposal meaning of "把" is just a object marker , emphasize. "给3" as a marker appears at the end of a sentence, which can express two grammatical function naming achievement and realization.The forth chapter mainly studies the word order in Tianzhu dialect. Based on the 16 parameters of Greenberg, on the basis facts of Tianzhu dialect , we choose 9 classification of representative in these 16 parameters, and fully reveals the word order in Tianzhu dialect. we speculated that the OV order in Tianzhu dialect probably comes from Amdo tibetan.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/228520
Collection文学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
宋珊. 甘肃天祝县汉语方言语法研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2017.
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