兰州大学机构库 >文学院
20 世纪中国小说性爱叙事研究
Alternative TitleA Study on Sex Love Narrations in Chinese Novels of the 20th Century
王彦彦
Thesis Advisor程金城
2007-05-03
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword性爱叙事 性意识 国家意识 生命意识
Abstract

本文通过对1919年“五四”运动以后的20世纪中国小说中性爱叙事的研究,梳理出小说性爱叙事与所表现的性意识在20世纪中发展变化的过程及不同时期所具有的特点,进一步概括出性意识发展的特点,从国家意识和生命意识两个方面指出性爱叙事中所体现的民族文化心理的特征。研究指出在 20 世纪中国小说的性爱叙事中有一个性描写逐步趋于大胆、性观念趋向多元化和性的本体地位逐渐确立起来的过程,产生这些变化的重要基础在于对“人”的表现在文学中逐步受到重视并取得了重要的地位,人的主体性受到前所未有的强调和突出;而通过对性爱叙事演变过程的研究我们也可以从中看出中国人对待现代性问题复杂而矛盾的态度;此外还可以看到在 20 世纪中国小说中是存在对终极价值意
义的追求与思索的,只是在实践过程中逐步失落了。全文共分四章。在第一章中,主要对“五四”以前中国古代艳情小说所表现出的性意识特点进行概括,其主要特征可以归纳为征战意识、狂欢意识、性罪意识和男性中心主义几个方面。第二章着重梳理 20 世纪中国小说性爱叙事和性意识的发展与特点。从“五四”到 20 世纪 20 年代,中国小说的性爱叙事是一种处在时代夹缝中的启蒙和解放,其所表现出来的特点,一是正面赋予性欲望以合理性,这种合理性是在人性解放和爱情前提下获得的;二是在强种育种的时代焦虑影响下小说性爱叙事表现出对物质身体的关注,其焦点主要在体格方面;三是树立起新的性伦理道德观念,表现为强调在性爱问题上的个人选择自由,性爱成为个人自我实现的重要方式,从而赋予人在性爱问题上的独立性,同时还扩大了性爱表现的领域;四,这个时期小说性爱叙事中所表现出的性意识还具有新旧杂糅的特点。30、40 年代小说性爱叙事表现出对人性主题的深化与开拓,首先是把性还原为欲望本身来探索,沈从文从和谐性爱对健全人性的决定作用、施蛰存从性压抑会导致人性扭曲甚至疯狂的角度探讨作为人类本质性欲望的性对人性产生的影响和作用,突出了性欲力量的不可抗拒和作为人类行为的重要动力等方面的内容;其次在叙事中表现出对欲望化了的身体的描绘与关注;第三是解构了性的伦理道德,无论是沈从文以自然法则来反对人为的道德设置还是新感觉派用消费交换原则替代传统性伦理道德,或是施蛰存极力表现包括性伦理规范在内的社会法则在性欲力量冲击下溃不成军,其直接的效果都是使性伦理道德对人的约束力量显得苍白虚弱;第四,出现了由女性作家表现的女性性意识,在丁玲的早期作品中女性的性欲望不再是作为感情的衍生物而是独立的欲望存在,而在梅娘等其他女作家的小说性爱叙事中则表现出对女性社会地位的强烈自觉意识。70 年代末80年代初期小说的性爱叙事实际上是在人道主义语境下的再次启蒙,其主要特征一是性爱在人道主义前提下获得合法性,但要求性爱不超出伦理规定的范围;再就是将性爱叙事同国家观念和民族神话相融合;此外还有对身体的描写审美化诗意化等。 80 年代中后期,小说性爱叙事进入了多元化探索的阶段,作家通过还原性欲望来还原人性、还原人类的本真状态,不同作家笔下表现为不同的侧重和倾向——以辨证的方式看待性爱,写出其具有的创造性力量和毁灭性特征;将性爱与暴力相联系并通过其来表现人性的黑暗;强调性爱的创造性作用,尤其在民族“血性”的传承方面。其次作家还纷纷对爱情的神圣性甚至爱情本身进行解构。第三,性象征内涵得到扩大。第四,性爱叙事中还出现了女性意识和女性性别自觉。90 年代性爱叙事成为小说创作面对边缘化处境而采取的策略之一,主要特点有叙述上的口语化、直白化;所表现出的性爱观念具有很大的包容性,包括性与爱分离、性被本质化等;此外身体此时不仅是欲望的对象,同时自身就是欲望的产生机制,而个人/私人的身体也开始出现在叙事当中。第三章分析性意识在 20 世纪的变化特点,主要从三个方面进行(一)、性观念的变化。首先是对性的价值意义认识发生的变化,总的来说是生殖目的逐步淡化,而性在人性和性别关系领域里的作用日益受到重视;其次是身体观念,叙事中的身体经历了一个从性灵的物质载体到被物质化、生物化的过程;第三表现在性伦理道德观念方面,总体上趋向包容与多元并存(二)、性别关系与性别意识的变化。两性关系的两种形态——疏远与结盟在小说性爱叙事中都有所表现, 总体而言对疏远状态的叙事要多于结盟状态,进入 90 年代以后尤其如此;而女性的性别自我意识与性别自觉意识方面,有一个逐步得到增强的过程,但在新写实女作家那里女性意识出现了世俗化的倾向。(三)、性爱叙事与现代人格中自我意识的关系。首先,自我意识的形成经历了一个变化的过程“群己”关系→自我与他人的关系→“我”与自我的关系;其次,与自我意识密切相关的自由观念在 20 世纪形成了三个传统: 1、将自由同社会领域、集体内聚力和公民权利义务活动相联系,认为政治上的自由是个人自由的基础; 2、认为自由主要是表现内在或真实的自我的自由; 3、通过对人们想要自由却不能或不愿追求自由的两难状态的表现悬置自由,对它的回答处在不断延迟的状态中。第四章主要从国家意识和生命意识两个方面来探讨小说性爱叙事中所表现的民族文化心理特征。在 90 年代以前的小说性爱叙事对国家意识的表现经历了一个逐步突出象征性的过程,而对构成国家意识的重要内容——忧患意识的内容也有更深广的开掘,对国家这一概念的认识有一个从感性到理性、从神圣到平凡的过程。对生命意识的表现在 80 年代中期以前主要是通过“道”赋予生死以价值意义,差别只在于赋予“道”的内涵不同; 80 年代中期以后生与死的价值意义逐步被消解,其最终指向趋于虚无,死亡观念也出现了理性主义和自然主义的特征,只有在部分女性作家那里生命意识中依然保有灵魂拯救的象向度。

Other Abstract

Based on a study on the sex love narrations in Chinese novels since the May 4th Movement of 1919, this dissertation probes the evolving process of fictional sex love narrations and the sex consciousness they embody in the 20th century as well as their period characteristics, summarizes further the features of sex love consciousness evolvement and thus reveals the cultural and psychological characteristics reflected in sex love narrations from the aspects of national and life consciousness respectively.It is pointed out that there has been a process of bolder sex love descriptions, pluralism of sex concepts and a gradual establishment of ontological sex status, the main reasons for which are that the representation of “human being” has gradually been paid greater attention to and has gained certain importance and that the subjectivity of human being has been emphasized unprecedentedly.It is also pointed out that an understanding of the Chinese’ complex and contradictory attitudes towards sex in the modern times can also be obtained through the research on the evolvement of sex love narrations. Besides, there has long existed a pursuit of and reflection upon the universal value in the Chinese novels of the 20th century, which, however, has gradually been lost in practice.This dissertation is consisted of four chapters. Chapter one is mainly a summarization of sex consciousness characteristics reflected in ancient Chinese erotic novels before the May 4th Movement of 1919,including conquest consciousness,revel consciousness,sex guiltiness consciousness,and man-centralized consciousness.Chapter two is mainly an assortment of the development and features of sex love narrations and sex consciousness in the 20th century. From May 4th Movement of 1919 to the 1920s, sex love narrations in Chinese novels were rather an enlightenment and liberation in that particular era with four characteristics. Firstly, sexual desire was endowed with rationality with regard to liberation of human nature and mutual love.Secondly, with an epochal concern for a stronger and superior race, greater attention was paid to sexual parties concerned, mainly physically. Thirdly, new ethics on sex were promoted in that personal freedom on sex love was emphasized and sex love became an important way of self-fulfillment. Therefore, independence of sex love was advocated and the scope of sex love was also widened. Fourthly, the sex consciousness of this period had the mixed features of the past and the contemporary. Sex love narrations in the 1930s and 1940s showed a further exploration on the theme of human nature. First of all, sex was restored to a kind of desire. Shen Congwen probed the importance of harmonious sex love to a sound personality and Shi Zhecun revealed that sexual inhibition could lead to the distortion, even frenzy of human nature. Both explored the influence and functions of sexual desire as human nature upon human personality,giving prominence to the irresistibleness of sexual desire and the significance of sexual desire as a motive.Then,human bodies driven by sexual desire were described and given greater attention to.Next,ethics on sex were deconstructed either by Shen Congwen who opposed man-made ethics with law of nature and the School of New Sensation who replaced traditional ethics on sex with exchange rules in consumption, or by Shi Zhecun who spared no efforts in representing the complete failure of social rules, including ethics on sex, due to the impact from sexual desire.The direct effect was a paleness of the ethical binding force on sex. Last,sex consciousness in the works of female writers emerged. In the early works of Ding Ling,the sexual desire of the female is no longer a ramification of emotion but an independent one.In addition,in the sex love narrations of other female writers,such as Mei Niang,strong self-consciousness on the social status of the female is also reflected. Sex love narrations in the late 1970s and early 1980s were actually a re-enlightenment in the spirit of humanism, whose major features include humanistic legitimation of sex love within the boundary of ethics, a blend of sex love narrations with national concepts and national myths as well as the aesthetic, poetic descriptions of human bodies etc. In the middle and late 1980s, sex love narrations entered a stage of exploration for pluralism. First, by restoration of sexual desire, writers of this era restored human nature,the very original state of human being. Different emphasis and tendencies could be seen in different writers: looking at sex love dialectically and trying to describe its creative as well as destructive characteristics; connecting sex love with violence and trying to reveal the evil side of human nature through it;emphasizing the creativeness of sex love especially in the heritage of “wildness”.Second,one writer after another began to deconstruct the divineness of love,even love itself.Third,the symbolic connotations of sex were broadened.Fourth,female consciousness and female gender self-consciousness began to emerge in sex love narrations. Sex love narrations of the 1990s were one of the strategies taken to fight against the marginalization of fiction creation. Its characteristics include narrative colloquialism and straightforwardness,greater tolerance shown to sex love concepts,for instance,sex and love can be separated and sex itself will be regarded as its essence etc.Furthermore,body is not only the object of desire, but also a mechanism of desire. At the same time, sex love narrations concerning individual or personal bodies also emerged. Chapter three analyzes the characteristics of sex consciousness evolvement in the 20th century from three aspects: (1) the change of sex concepts. First of all, the perception on the value of sex has changed. Generally speaking, the purpose of procreation weakened. On the contrary, the importance of sex in the domain of human nature and gender relations was enhanced gradually. Next, the notion about human body has changed from a carrier of spirit to a materialized and organized being. Last, ethics on sex tended towards a coexistence of tolerance and pluralism in general. (2) The evolvement of gender relations and gender consciousness.Two forms of gender relations——alienation and alignment were represented and the former was generally superior to the latter in number, which was especially true in the 1990s.The female’s gender self-awareness and gender self-consciousness have witnessed a process of gradual strengthening,but in the works of neorealist female writers a secular tendency could be found.(3)The relationship between sex love narrations and self-consciousness in modern personality.Firstly,the formation of self-consciousness followes this procedure: relationship between “ the mass and me”→“others and me” →“me” and self. Secondly, the notion of freedom which is closely linked with self-consciousness shaped three traditions: one, a connection of freedom with social domains, collective cohesion and rights and duties of citizens with political freedom regarded as the basis of personal freedom.Two,freedom was perceived as a representation of innate or true self.Three,through the dilemma of a want for freedom and inability or unwillingness for freedom,a suspended freedom,the reply to which is in delay forever, was represented. Chapter four focuses on cultural and psychological characteristics embodied in sex love narrations from the aspects of national and life consciousness respectively.The representation of national consciousness in sex love narrations before 1990s has witnessed gradual symbolic prominence and a deeper exploration for a major component in national consciousness——consciousness for the unexpected development. The perception for the concept of nation has gone from a sensational one to a rational one, and a divine one to a secular one. The presentation of life consciousness before the middle 1980s was mainly in the form of a value endowed to life and death through “Tao” and the only difference lied in the different connotations of “Tao”. After that, the value of life and death has gradually been cleared up and finally ended up in nothingness. At the same time, the notion of death began to bear the characteristics of rationalism and naturalism, except in the works of few female writers whose life consciousness still had the tendency of spiritual salvation.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/228808
Collection文学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王彦彦. 20 世纪中国小说性爱叙事研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2007.
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