兰州大学机构库 >文学院
20 世纪中国俄罗斯侨民文学研究
Alternative TitleA study on the literature of the Russian emigrants living in China 20th century
王亚民
Thesis Advisor程金城
2007-03-02
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword中国 俄侨文学 作家与作品 关系
Abstract

20 世纪初期中东铁路的建设者和十月革命开始前后的俄罗斯侨民集体的大迁徙,拉开了中国俄罗斯侨民的序幕,作为邻国的中国中东铁路的所在地哈尔滨成为了俄侨理想的首选聚集地。直到 20 世纪 50 年代,俄罗斯侨民在中国哈尔滨、上海等城市半个多世纪的繁衍生息,为俄罗斯侨民在中国的文化生活谱写了一首壮美的歌曲,为子孙后代留下了许多宝贵的精神财富。然而,这些宝贵的精神财富,却由于种种的历史原因,久久未能与读者见面,直到 20 世纪 80 年代,特别是 90 年代苏联解体以后,“侨民文学”的“回归”与其遗产的发掘,成为俄罗斯和全球文坛乃至文化生活中的热点现象后,中国的俄罗斯侨民文学也随着这股“回归”热潮得到世界范围内的广泛关注。可以看说,中国俄罗斯侨民文学是近年来发现的一个新的研究领域。
中国俄罗斯侨民文学是指 20 世纪初至 50 年代,由流亡到哈尔滨的俄罗斯人在中国大地上用俄语创作的文学作品,其作品既保留了鲜明的“白银时代”的文学特征,又刻有深深的中国烙印。它以坚强刚毅和崇尚意志的鲜明个性、地域色彩、思乡情结,以及民族风格而独树一帜。中国俄罗斯侨民文学是 20 世纪世界文学的组成部分,也是中国现代文学的特殊构成。近年来侨民文学在世界范围内的学术界引起广泛注意并被重新定位。其中“俄罗斯侨民文学现象”的研究显得十
分突出。 1992 年,在俄罗斯与美国共同发起“俄苏侨民文学的昨天与今天”的圆桌座谈上,呼吁全方位“开发”“俄罗斯侨民文学”。 自 1990 年起,俄罗斯国内的许多文艺学刊物相继开辟了“国外俄罗斯文学”专栏,各大高校和文学研究院所都相继开设了“国外俄罗斯文学”的课程,“俄罗斯侨民作家”的创作第一次得到了正面的评述。最近几年,包括俄罗斯、英、美、日、澳大利亚等国的许多学
者和作家,把注意力放在了中国俄罗斯侨民文学上,应当说,中国俄罗斯侨民文学已经在世界范围内成为一个热点。中国俄罗斯侨民文学作为独立的章节也第一次写入了 1998 年莫斯科出版的《俄罗斯侨民文学史》中。这里特别值得一提的是,中国的俄侨文学不同于欧美俄侨文学。在欧美的俄侨作家中,有不少人因从事文学翻译而被誉为文化交流的使者,譬如纳博科夫、波普拉夫斯基等。但与中国的侨民作家相比,前者主要是向西方译介俄罗斯的文学作品,而后者则是把中国的文化传播到了俄罗斯。然而,就国内目前的研究情形来看,国内的相关研究起步很晚,而且没有系统的研究成果,基本还停留在对“俄侨文学”历史脉络的勾勒上。可以说,国内研究者对中国俄罗斯侨民文学文本及作家的具体而系统的分析评价尚未展开,此部分的研究至今几乎还是一个空白,这也恰好为本文的研究提供了较为广阔的空间。
本论文主要以五卷本翻译版的“中国俄罗斯侨民文学丛书”为研究对象,结合国内外现有的少量资料,将分九章对中国俄罗斯侨民文学中的回忆录、诗歌、小说进行分析与研究:第一,分析俄罗斯侨民文学创作的时代背景;哈尔滨、上海作为俄侨流亡地的特殊性;哈尔滨作为侨民文学发源地及其与创作的关系;哈尔滨罗斯侨民文学作家群;哈尔滨俄罗斯侨民文学的产生。归纳梳理哈尔滨俄罗斯侨民文学的基
本面貌,其创作的社会、地域、文化环境及其成因;第二,从回忆录研究,诗歌创作研究,小说创作研究着手,将文体研究与重点个案研究相结合,从而揭示中国俄罗斯侨民文学的思想意蕴和主要艺术特点,评价中国俄罗斯侨民文学的价值和意义;第三,从中俄文化碰撞下的中国俄罗斯侨民文学的思想意蕴;俄国精神特质与中国乡土气息交织的中国俄罗斯侨民文学的艺术特色,以及从其创作题材、创
作方法、创作地域和俄侨与中国的亲情关系上,论证了中国俄罗斯侨民文学是中国现代文学的一个组成部分,而且,中国俄罗斯侨民文学有着其特殊性和文学史意义。从而,本论文的研究扩大了中国现代文学研究的范围,为重新描绘中国现代文学的“版图”提供了新的学术成果和依据。因此,也进一步论证了中国俄罗斯侨民文学的研究在中国现代文学史中的地位及其独特的价值。中国俄罗斯侨民文学在中国现代文学史、俄罗斯文学史上都是独特的存在。包涵着其他文学对象少有的特殊性,本身既是特殊地域文学现象,也是跨国、跨民族、跨文化现象。另外,中国俄罗斯侨民文学是在俄罗斯和中国不同文化模式、背景上特殊群体情感的物化,深层蕴涵着不同的文化精神,体现不同的民族意识。许多中国俄罗斯侨民作家的作品深受中国文化的影响,可以说当时的俄罗斯侨民作家的创作没有哪个不受中国文化影响的。他们除了对中国景物、风光、民俗的描写外,其作品中不时会出现一些东方特有的词汇和意象,更有作家的创作几乎完全是以对中国东北及少数民族地区的中国民俗的记录和阐释为其创作的内容。揭示这一文学现象中的精神内容,具有重要学术价值和文化意蕴。
中国俄罗斯侨民文学与同一时期同一地域中国作家的创作既有相同的方面,但有更多和更深层的不同,对此进行比较研究可获得新的学术成果。本研究具有一定的可延续性,研究空间还十分广阔。本论文第一次系统而全面地研究中国俄罗斯侨民文学。分文体全面系统地考察
分析中国俄罗斯侨民文学的面貌,揭示中国俄罗斯侨民文学的深层意蕴及其与俄罗斯、中国文化的关系,概括作为特殊地域文学的中国俄罗斯侨民文学在中国现代文学史上的特殊地位与意义。应该说,本研究填补了中国现代文学研究的空白,中国俄罗斯侨民文学作为特殊的地域文学类别,拓展了中国现代文学研究的领域,是一种特殊的交叉、边缘研究。因此,本论文具有创新性、前沿性和独特的学术价值。对于俄苏文学和中国现代文学的研究都有不可替代之文学史意义和学术理论价值。

Other Abstract

The literature of the Russian emigrants refers to, in this thesis, the literary works created by the Russian emigrants living in China. The era of emigration from Russia to China was started by the construction of the Middle East railway in early 20th century and the mass emigration from Russia around the October Revolution. Harbin, a central station on the Middle East railway, in Russia’s neighboring country China, became the first ideal gathering spot of the Russian emigrants. Their settlement and development during half a century until 1950’s in Harbin and Shanghai was a solemn and beautiful melody of their cultural activities in China. They left to their descendants abundant and priceless spiritual heritage. However, this heritage has been unknown to the readers for various historical reasons until 1980’s. Only by 1980’s, especially after the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1990’s, did the “Return” of “emigrants’ literature” and the exploration of its heritage stand in the limelight of the cultural and literary fields of Russia as well as of the whole world. And then the literature of the overseas Russian in China, capturing extensive attention from the whole world, became a new land for an active exploration.
The literature of the overseas Russian in China indicates the works composed in Russian language by the overseas Russian in Harbin, China. As a whole, it remained the distinct literary characteristics of Silver Era, and bore a strong impression of the outstanding features of advocating persistence and strong will, of local colors, homesickness complex, national sentiments and special styles. It is an important part of world literature in 20th century, as well as a special component of contemporary Chinese literature. Emigrants’ literature has recently received more and more attention and has been reevaluated in academic field at home and abroad. The phenomenon of “the literature of the overseas Russian” has been studied worldwide. A full-scale research was called on in a round-table conference “The Literature of the Overseas Russian and the Soviet Union Yesterday and Today”, which was initiated by Russia and America altogether in 1992. Since 1990, many Russian literature journals have started special columns devoting to the literature of the overseas Russian and many colleges and research institutes began to offer the course of the literature of the overseas Russian. The works of the overseas Russian writers for the first time received its positive commentary. They have gained so much attention of scholars and writers in Russia, Britain, America, Japan and Australia during these years, that the literature became popular worldwide and was incorporated as an independent chapter for the first time in “A History of the Literature of Overseas Russian”, which was published in 1998 in Moscow. It must be pointed out that there are differences between the literature of the overseas Russian in West and the one in China. Many overseas Russian writers in Europe and the United States were praised as messenger of culture exchange, such as Набоков, Поплавский and etc. They translated and introduced Russian literary works into the West, while their fellowmen in China brought Chinese culture into Russia.
However, their works have not been studied in China at present, so there are few systematic achievements. We are still outlining the history of their literary works. So we can say that the domestic researchers have not yet begun a concrete and systemic analysis on this subject which leaves much room for the research in this dissertation. This thesis, with the five-volumed translation edition of “The literature of Overseas Russian in China” being its study subject and with the combination of the rare vailable material aboard and at home , will analyze and discuss with nine chapters the memoirs, poems and novels in the above-named book. First, it will make a careful analysis and a clear classification of the literature of the overseas Russian in Harbin and its social, regional and cultural environment. It will analyze the creation  ackground of the literature of the overseas Russian in China, the particularity of Harbin and Shanghai which caused the Russian emigrants to choose these two cities as their early destination, the origination of the literature of the overseas Russian in Harbin, etc. Second, it will reveal the ideology and main artistic features of the literature of overseas Russian in Harbin and make an evaluation of them. It will also analyze the general literary forms and specific cases of the memoirs, poems and novels. Third, it will demonstrate that literature of the overseas Russian in China is a part of modern Chinese literature and has its own particularity and significance to the history of literature. It will analyze the ideology of the literature of the overseas Russian in China under the circumstances of cultural exchange. By doing so, the dissertation will expand the field of modern Chinese literature, supply it with new academic support of achievements and demonstrate further the irreplaceable role and special values of the literature of the overseas Russian.
The literature of the overseas Russian in China emerged as a special existence both in the history of contemporary Chinese literature and the history of Russian literature. It embodies its uniqueness as being a phenomenon of regional literature, as well as being a cross-cultural case. It is an incardination of special collective emotion against the background of different cultural patterns in Russia and northeast China. It shows in depth the different cultural essences and national ideologies reflected in the minds of the overseas Russian writers and their works. All of the works were so much under the influence of Chinese culture .Some of the works are even accounts and explanations of the customs in northeast China and of the customs of minority nationalities. So it is of great cultural and academic values to analyze the contents and spirits of this literary phenomenon.
There are more differences than similarities in the breadth and the depth between the works of the overseas Russian writers in China and the works of contemporary local Chinese writers, and this ensures a continuity and a broad extension to the research on the literature of the overseas Russia This thesis will study completely and systematically the literature of the overseas Russian in Harbin, which enriched  odern Chinese literature, analyze its different styles, reveal its profundity and its relationship with Russian and Chinese culture according to different literal forms of this literature, and generalize its importance as a special regional literature in modern Chinese literature. It will fill a gap in the research on the modern Chinese literature, and because the literature of the overseas Russian is a special and regional one, the study of it has a nature of intersection and marginality. Owing to the academic innovation, originality and uniqueness of this thesis, it is hoped that it will have an irreplaceable value in the academic and theoretic study of the history of literature of both Russia-Soviet and China.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/228810
Collection文学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王亚民. 20 世纪中国俄罗斯侨民文学研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2007.
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