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《诗经》忠怨诗主旨考--兼论屈赋对《诗经》的继承
Alternative TitleResearch on the Gist of Poems expressing Loyalty and Plaint in The Book of Songs-- with the Inheritance Discussion of Qu Fu’s
杨燕珍
Thesis Advisor杨玲
2018-04-10
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword《诗经》 忠怨诗 主旨 屈赋 继承
Abstract

以忠怨诗概念全面考察《诗经》中的诗歌主旨,其中7首诗确定为忠怨诗,另有《国风》5篇和《小雅》7篇主旨需考证。《邶风·柏舟》主旨有两大争论观点,分别是妇人见弃说与仁人不遇说。据考证,后者仁人说更合诗旨,贤臣不得于君,又不忍离去,心绪难平。《王风·黍离》争议较大的是《韩诗》的观点,尹吉甫听信后妻谗言杀子一说。其观点与诗意并不吻合。《诗序》认为是贤臣悲悯宗周变为废墟一说,其应更合诗旨。今人虽新说迭起,但大多也不离诗人家国情怀的主题。《孔子诗论》中批判《黍离》有“怨君”情绪,此评价与诗中对西周陷落的忧愁思绪吻合。《园有桃》是一篇忧时之诗。但所忧何事?历来有多解。据考证,魏国是舜乡,长期实行俭啬政策,过俭则易失礼。诗以园中的“桃”“棘”比兴。“桃”“棘”作为果树中下品,反而被当作佳肴。明显不合礼制,失礼则国将不宁。诗人为国家命运忧心,反而得不到重用和理解,忧愤而作诗。《唐风·采苓》主旨虽已明,但起兴之义历来存在争议。起兴之义不明,则会影响对诗歌主旨的理解。据考证诗中所采“苓”“苦”“葑”都带苦味和寒性,符合《诗经》起兴的逻辑结构,更是贴合诗歌所表达的主题,谗言如所采的“苓”“苦”“葑”植物性质一样使人心苦涩和寒凉。《桧风·羔裘》主旨存在争议。考证也从诗歌起兴着眼。羔裘是朝服,狐裘是外出息民的祭服。首章以“羔裘逍遥,狐裘以朝”暗指君王失职。因其君不听诗人的规劝,可能要面临离开本国,但他的内心牵挂国家,写下《羔裘》劝谏之言,期望君主能幡然悔过。
《小雅》的7首诗的“忠怨”主旨历来争议甚大。据考证,《沔水》是描写统治者不循法度,使群小生出讹言和谗语,导致国家动乱的诗。但同姓贵族和异性诸侯无人止乱。每章都流露诗人内心的不安和忧虑。诗篇有《离骚》神理在内。《节南山》主旨是周朝大夫家父讽刺执政大臣师尹乱政败国,间接讽谏君王用人不当,以至国家陷入危机。结合历代注本和出土文献考证,《十月之交》写于幽王六年,国家动荡之际。皇父不遵守本职,大肆迁城,搜刮财宝欲逃离宗周。而诗人自己勤劳于王事,不敢懈怠,但是依然无辜被谗,同僚当面谈笑,背后做做令人可憎的事。《雨无正》创作于“二王并立”期间,讽刺幽王不听善言忠谏,专听恶言谗言,导致上天降灾,外敌入侵,最终宗周灭亡。在此衰落之际,诗人仍不离宗周,以期新君入主,同僚归来,重建国家。《小弁》的主旨是幽王听信后妃谗言,流放太子宜臼。眼见国家逐渐衰落和被父亲所弃,双重幽怨积聚于心,宜臼才有更深沉的感悟。《四月》是一首逐臣南迁的诗。诗人在朝廷上同僚排挤,君王疏远,被贬至南国之地,只好借诗抒发心中的忧愤之情。《青蝇》以青蝇比作谗言。诗末含蓄点出诗人可能受到小人谗言,君王疏远,因此写诗劝谏君王莫听谗言。
在考证《诗经》忠怨诗主旨的基础上,使用内证与外证两种手段全面探析屈赋对《诗经》忠怨诗的继承。内证是通过两者文本比对探析两者继承的必然性。他们在思想内容上有共同点,诗人们都竭忠尽智以侍奉君王,但君王昏庸,听信群小谗言,疏远贤人。但诗人们对君王、群小和自己的情感表述的侧重点不尽相同。外证是从文化角度论证两者继承的可能性。文化角度着重于全面了解了中原文化的传播,楚人对中原文化的学习,以及屈原对中原文化认同。

Other Abstract

If the concepts of poems expressing loyalty and plaint are taking as the criterion to examine the gist of The Book of Songs, seven poems can be determined as these kinds of poems, with the gist of five Lessons From The States and seven Minor Odes of the Kingdom left to be verified. There are two main controversial points about the gist of Cypress Boat from Airs of Pei, namely forsaken woman and unrecognized talents. According to research, the point of unrecognized talents is more fit for the gist of this poem, which expresses frustrated virtuous court officials, who want to serve the country, while the emperor never gives them chance. The point of Han Poem involves relatively significant controversy towards Lush Millet of Lessons From The States, in which Yin Jifu (The king's minister) believed his second wife’s slander and killed his son. This viewpoint is not identical to the original thought of the poem. Viewpoints from Poetic Preface, which stand in line with the compassion feelings of virtuous court officials when Zhou dynasty resulted in ruins are more in accord with the thought of poem. Though new viewpoints grow, most are close to the  "Family-country" theme. Authors of Confucius Art of Poetry criticize that there is resentment feelings towards king in Lush Millet, and this evaluation is in accord with the poets’ depression towards the downthrow of Western Zhou Dynasty. Peach Trees in Garden is a poem of obsession with country. About what the poet worried for? There are many answers. According to research, State Wei, where is Shun's hometown,  have been practicing niggard policies for a long time, while frugality and parsimony may bring disrespect. Metaphor tactics are used in this poem. Peach and thorn are very common fruit trees, while they are treated as delicacy instead, which is unsuited to etiquette. Unrest will come without etiquette. The poet is worried about the fate of his country, but is not able to be reused and understood, so he made this poem with worries and indignation. Though the idea of Cai Ling from the The Wind of Tang is clear, there is controversy on the stimulants to the poems. Unobvious stimulants may affect readers’ understanding of the poem. According to research, “cocklebur”, “chinaberry” and “turnip” in Cai Ling are bitter with cold nature, which is conform to the logical structure of stimulants in The Book of Songs, and fit for the theme of poetry. Calumny just like “cocklebur”, “chinaberry” and “turnip”, making the heart bitter and cold. The gist of Lambskin in Odes of Kuai is in dispute. Reference work sees from the angle of stimulants. Lambskin is the court dress, fox-fur robe is the sacrificia garment for outward ceasing farming. The first chapter uses “wearing lambskin for leisure, and fox-fur robe for court working” to hint at the emperor’s dereliction of duty. The king did not take the poet’s advice, and the poet may face the deportation. But he deeply concerned about the country, so he wrote the poem Lambskin to remonstrate the emperor, hoping he can repent his error.
Big controversy on the loyalty and plaint gist of the seven poems in Minor Odes of the Kingdom has existed for a long time. According to research, the Mianshui River is the poem describing civil unrest resulted from people’s calumny and the emperor’s not following the statutes. However, no one in nobility of the same family name and the feudal princes stand out to prevent the unrest. The poet’s uneasy and anxious feelings can be seen in each chapter of the poem. Poem Lisao contains “Just of God”. The gist of poem Lofty is that Southern Hill is that the father of a senior official in Zhou dynasty mocked the office secretary Shi Yi’s political corruption and satirized the emperor indirectly for employing person irrelevantly, throwing the country into a crisis. According to the references and notes of the past dynasties, the poem November’s here is made in the six years of You emperor, when the country is in turmoil, and the emperor fails to observe his responsibility, moves the capital a lot, and search of the treasure, hoping to get away from Zhou. The poet himself is busy in the emperor’s business, dare not slacken his efforts, however, he is still condemned innocently. Fellow officials talk and laugh in front of him, while do bad things behind his back. Yu Wu Zheng is made in the period of “two emperors exist simultaneously”, mocking You emperor ignoring advice with good words but taking slanderous talk, resulting in natural disaster, foreign invasion and the perish of Zhou dynasty. During the country’s downfall, the poet never leave Zhou, hoping that a new emperor can be selected, colleagues may come back, and the country can be rebuilt. The gist of the poem Small Cap (a man’s cap used in ancient times) is that You emperor believes the calumny of concubines and exiles the prince Yi Jiu. Facing with the national decline and the abandon, Yi Jiu has bitterness in his heart, and has a deep sentiment. April is a poem describing ministers migrating south. The poet is squeezed out by colleagues, alienated by emperor, and been exiled to south. He has no choice but to write poems to express his resentment. The poet compares bluebottle as calumny in the poem Bluebottle. At the end of the poem, it implicitly points out that the poet may have been slandered by villain, and alienated by emperor, so he writes this poem to remonstrate the emperor don't listen to calumny.
On the basis of researching the gist of poems expressing loyalty and plaint in The Book of Songs, interior syndrome and exterior syndrome are used to comprehensively analyse Qu Fu’s inherit towards the poems expressing loyalty and plaint. Interior syndrome refers to analysis the necessity of succession by comparing two texts. They have something in common on the content and ideas. The poets are loyal to the emperor, but the emperor is fatuous, listen to the slanderers and alienate the wise. But poets have different priorities for emperors, for slanderers, and for their own emotional expressions. And external evidence is a cultural argument for the possibility of inheritance. The cultural perspective focuses on the comprehensive understanding of the dissemination of central plains culture, Chu people's study of the central plains culture, and Quyuan’s identity to the central plains cultural.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/228866
Collection文学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨燕珍. 《诗经》忠怨诗主旨考--兼论屈赋对《诗经》的继承[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2018.
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