兰州大学机构库 >文学院
“生死场”的现代书写 ——萧红新论
Alternative TitleA Modern Writing of the “Field of Life and Death” —Reevaluation of Xiao Hong
李向辉
Thesis Advisor程金城
2007-04-25
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword生死场 现代书写 Reevaluation of Xiao Hong
Abstract

中国现代文学的星空,群星璀璨。萧红,作为中国现代文学史上最杰出的女作家之一,无疑是这星空中光彩夺目的一颗。但最为一个年仅 31 岁就过早去世的年青女作家,长久以来围绕在萧红身上的各种目光是纷繁和复杂的。一度她不是依靠作品的成就而只是因为自身坎坷曲折的命运打动着普通读者和研究者。当然,这对萧红来说是相当不公平的。不到十年的文学历程,萧红创作了近百万字作品,尤其是为中国现代文学史贡献了《生死场》和《呼兰河传》这样不可重复的珍贵文本。其他更有《家族以外的人》、《小城三月》、《牛车上》、《后花园》、《马伯乐》、《商市街》等文学精品,流传后世。
相对于五四一代作家,萧红是中国现代文学史上的第二代作家。 1933 年在哈尔滨登上文坛,次年即完成了成名作《生死场》的写作。 1935 年《生死场》在上海出版,萧红一跃成为当时文坛知名的女作家。《生死场》的出版和萧红的成名在很大程度上都倚赖了鲁迅先生的帮助和大力推荐,萧红也因而在现实中和精神上成为鲁迅先生的忠实弟子。《生死场》在当时被誉为“打响了抗战文学先声”,奠定了萧红在文坛和文学史上的地位,但也正是这一定位造成了日后长达数十年对萧红其后的作品和整体创作评价的失误。随着抗战的全面爆发和深入,面对愈亦明确的文坛形势,对东北沦陷区抗日活动的正面描写却再也没有出现在萧红的笔下。主动退出时代潮流的萧红开始回望故土和童年,旅日期间创作的《牛车上》和《家族以外的人》在某种意义上是萧红的转型之作。但日益恶化的时局却不允许萧红平静的写作,从 1937 年 9 月萧红离开上海踏上自己生命中最后五年的逃难生涯。在一切服从抗日救亡的呼声下,萧红对个体写作的坚守在今天看来既独具勇气又相当智慧。遵循着自己的眼睛所观察到的生活去创作,萧红这一时期的众多作品既没有无视抗日这一大的背景,又有自己的关注重心, 展现了战争给普通百姓的生活造成的影响, 以及普通个体所遭受的心灵创伤。也正是这一时期萧红的文学思想愈益成熟,在“有各式各样的作者,有各式各样的小说”、“一个题材必须要跟作者的感情熟习起来,或者跟作者起着一种思恋的情绪”等有限的表达中,我们可以看到萧红在那个趋同性要求极高的时代难得的清醒。 1940 年萧红来到了自己最后的憩息地香港,在这里完成了文学史的“奇书”《呼兰河传》和讽刺杰作《马伯乐》的写作。《呼兰河传》标示出文学史上不可替代的萧红之美。萧红整体的创作倾向无疑是隶属现实主义的,并且继承了五四“改造民族灵魂”这一优秀文学传统。作品形成了两个明显的系列,一是仰仗对他人痛苦的极度敏感、对普通人生命价值的密切关注,关注弱者,呼唤幸福:《家族以外的人》-《后花园》—《小城三月》;一是,本着“作家的创作是对着人类的愚昧”的创作理念,彰显文化批判的力量,意在“改造民族灵魂”:《生死场》—《呼兰河传》—《马伯乐》。
从上世纪 30 年代算起,萧红的研究历程已走过近八十个年头。鲁迅、胡风和茅盾等在萧红的评价历史上均扮演过重要的角色。对《生死场》意蕴的曲解一度严重压抑了对萧红后期创作的重视对萧红本身价值的开掘。新时期海外学者葛浩文(Howardc Goldblatt)以一部《萧红评传》揭开了兴起于八十年代的“萧红热”,也掀起了《生死场》再评价的热潮。随着对《生死场》意蕴的多角度挖掘,对萧红整体创作面貌的描述发生了很大变化,萧红不仅仅是以一个抗日作家名世,而因为作品内容和风格上的独特性,在中国现代文学史上占据愈来愈重要的位置。但在具体的研究上,萧红研究还呼唤摆脱旧有的套路,通过对作品更细致的阅读和更贴心的感受,来展现萧红的独特价值。在萧红的创作心理中,极其醒目的一点是她对“他人”痛苦的极度敏感。因为童年被父母排斥的痛苦体验,形成了萧红表面倔强刚强而内心敏感脆弱的个性特征,从小就表现出对周围人内心痛苦具有超常的感应能力,而这些对痛苦的记忆成年后成为萧红不竭的创作源泉。对他人痛苦的细致感受和体察,使萧红在创作中特别关注不幸者,正是穷人、老人、女人、孩子这些完全没有保障的弱者在社会中遭遇着各式各样的痛苦和不幸。这种对“他人”痛苦的敏感和关注表现在创作上,就是被概括在俄罗斯优秀作家契诃夫身上的所谓的“人的才能”,赋予萧红作品以深厚的人道主义底蕴。从文学作品的形式因素来看, 萧红在小说文体上的建树已得到普遍的认可。在代表作《生死场》和《呼兰河传》中,萧红都明显舍弃了小说的时间要素,而以空间形式来结构作品,通过对场景的展现和场景与场景的并置,力图表现出“城”的历史和较长时间段内一种生存的状态。另外,出色的景物描写、生动的人物对话以及简洁细腻的文字都是萧红小说魅力的构成要素。以叙述学的眼光考察萧红的作品,在叙述声音的层面上萧红作品中存在一个“无处不在的叙述人”,她通过讲述别人的故事来倾诉自己的感情,既曲折幽隐,又亲切自然。萧红的很多短篇小说,从叙述学角度看都是精美的叙述学文本。萧红作品的魅力在于,让读者透过她的眼睛“看”世界,凭借她对生活非凡的观察力,用充满感情意味的文字将她对生活的“发现”生动地再现出来。而在更高层次上,通过个人身世的悲剧感受传达出对生命意义层次的思考和对苦难人间的深切关怀。萧红在中国现代文学史上有一些卓尔不群, 其创作的特色既与她所天然隶属的左翼文学存在一定距离,又与她必然隶属的女作家群体不相混同,太多的个人化的东西使她成为现代文学不太可能重复的书写.

 

Other Abstract

In the constellation of modern Chinese literature, Xiao Hong is one of the brightest star. With her early death at 31, she has long been the focus of controversy. For some time, she was famous among scholars and readers for the vicissitudes of her life rather than for her literary creations.
This, to be honest, does no justice to such an accomplished writer as Xiao, whose literary output amounts to nearly one millions words and whose representative works such as Sheng Si Chang (Field of Life and Death), Hu Lan He Zhuan (A Life of River Hulan) are truly masterpieces in the 20th century Chinese literature, while such books as Jia Zu Yi Wai De Ren (A Man Outside the Family),Xiao Cheng San Yue (A Small Town in March), Niu Che Shang (On the Oxen Cart), Hou Hua Yuan (The Backyard), Ma Bo Le (Ma Bole), Nan Shi Jie (South of the Fair) are also indispensable readings for the posterity.Xiao Hong belongs to the second generation of modern Chinese writers. Her literary career started in 1933, her masterpiece Field of Life and Death completed the next year and published in 1935 in Shanghai, which won her immediate reputation. The publication and success of the bookowes much to the support of Lu Xun, who soon became her only mentor in the following years.
Field of Life and Death, which established Xiao’s name as a major writer, was the precursor of the so called anti-Japanese Literature, and it is because of this definition that she was misunderstood for over a decade. The Anti-Japanese War marginalized all literary activity and Xiao has never again turned her attention to the depiction of the Japanese occupied Manchuria. Retired from the mainstream literature of the time, Xiao began to look back at her childhood in her hometown. The riotous situation makes it impossible for her to go on with her writing, however, and since September 1937 she was on a trip that leads her to tragic death. When the mainstream literature was fully focused on the anti-Japanese War, Xiao’s personally writing seems, even to us today, a courageous and wise act. Following her own instinct and observations, Xiao’s writings are more concerned with the life of the ordinary people than with the war. When she wrote about the war,she did it through ordinary characters whose life was affected by it rather than who participated in it. It is in these personal writings that Xiao Hong developed her individuality, her slogan being“there are different writers and therefore there are different writings”, “the thing you write about need be directly attached to your feelings”. In 1940, Xiao retreated to Hong Kong, where she started the two of her most “obscure” novels: A Life of River Hulan, and Ma Bole, the former marks the irreplaceable beauty of Xiao’s literary creation.
In general, Xiao Hong’s writings are realistic, continuing the May Fourth tradition of using literature and arts to transform the Chinese soul. Her output, though, is divided into two main types: the first, as represented by A man Outside the Family, The Backyard, and the Small Town in March, concerns her own individual observations of human suffering while the second, as represented by The Field of Life and Death, A Life of River Hulan, Ma Bole, manifests her deep concern about the reality of the nation during the War.
The Xiao Hong criticism started as early as the 1930s, with Lu Xun, Hu Feng and Mao Dun playing significant roles in the judgment of her works. The misunderstanding of The Field of Life and Death led to depreciation of her works in general. In the 1980s, the reevaluation by Howard Goldblatt in his A Critical Life of Xiao Hong, initiated a new vogue and The Field of Life and Death became the focus of a new fashion. The multi-phased reevaluation of the book also started a general change of attitude toward Xiao’s literary canon. She is now considered a unique, major writer rather than a war writer only. Xiao Hong’s novels are all based on her sensitive observations of the sufferings of the Other. The fact that she had been disliked by her parents caused the paradox between her internal weakness and external strength, her over-sensitivity toward thesufferings of other people, particularly of the unfortunate, such as the poor, the old, women, andchildren. Her sensitivity to suffering manifests itself in almost all her novels, and constitutes thehumanistic connotation of her works.
The way Xiao wrote her novels is now recognized as unique, too. In her masterpieces, time is no longer the unifying element. Instead, space serves as a main structuring frame, the juxtaposition of various scenes is used to produce an effect of a “city” and its history. In addition,her depiction of sceneries, her description of characters through conversation, and her simplicity of diction all combine to produce the charm of her novels. The omnipresent narrator in her novelsalso helps to exhaust all aspects of the story. Xiao Hong allows the reader to observe the world through her eyes and thus every thing that is seen is pregnant with full feelings. The suffering sheherself experienced has thus a universal appeal. The uniqueness of Xiao Hong lies in herself-distancing from both the Leftist writers of the time and her contemporary women writers.This is the very reason why she is considered impossible to imitate.
 

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/228966
Collection文学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李向辉. “生死场”的现代书写 ——萧红新论[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2007.
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