兰州大学机构库 >物理科学与技术学院
自驱动聚苯胺氨气传感器
Alternative TitleSelf-powered ammonia sensor based on polyaniline
张东艺
Thesis Advisor秦勇
2018-03-30
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword自驱动 压电纳米发电机 氨气传感器 聚苯胺 锆钛酸铅
Abstract

自驱动系统是一种无需外加电池,可以用来收集外界环境中能量并将其转化为电能的新型功能器件的集成系统,在生物医学、环境监测、军事侦察和安全防护报警中具有广泛的应用前景。本文围绕自驱动传感系统展开了基于锆钛酸铅(PZT)压电纳米发电机的自驱动聚苯胺(PANI)氨气传感器的研究工作。
PANI由于其特殊的掺杂机理、可控的导电性及优良的环境稳定性等特点被广泛应用于气体传感器中。本文利用化学聚合法制备出本征态PANI,并用质子酸HCl对其进行掺杂。本征态PANI是以无规则团聚体形式存在的,堆叠的团聚体之间又有较大的间隙,PANI经HCl掺杂后具有一定的结晶性且团聚体间的间隙变小,掺杂主要发生在醌式氮原子上。随后我们利用掺杂态的PANI制作氨气传感器并在室温下对该传感器的气敏性能进行测试,该传感器对氨气有较好的选择性且灵敏度随着氨气浓度的增大而增大。 PZT压电陶瓷拥有优异的压电性能,具备制作高输出压电纳米发电机的潜力。本文利用静电纺丝法结合煅烧工艺制备出取向一致的PZT纳米线,并将PZT纳米线固定在柔性基底上,制成PZT压电纳米发电机。通过极化翻转实验确定其输出信号为真实的压电信号。在驱动频率为5 Hz时,该发电机的电压输出约为0.15 V,电流输出约为1.5 nA。
最后将PZT压电纳米发电机与PANI氨气传感器进行结合,制备出一种自驱动型氨气传感器。该传感器实现了对不同浓度氨气的监测,发电机的电流输出随着氨气浓度的增大而增大,因此可以根据发电机的电流输出情况判断氨气的浓度。

Other Abstract

Self-powered system is a new kind of integrated system which can harvest energy from the environment and transform it into electrical, which could be used to power the functional devices in the system without external power source. Accordingly, it has attractive application prospects in biomedicine, environmental monitoring, military reconnaissance and safety protection alarm. In this thesis, we focus on the self-powered ammonia sensor and successfully fabricate a self-powered ammonia sensor based on polyaniline (PANI) with a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based piezoelectric nanogenerator powering it.
PANI has been widely used in gas sensors because of its special doping mechanism, excellent conductivity, and environmental stability. In our work, the intrinsic state PANI is prepared by chemical polymerization and doped with proton acid HCl. The eigenvalue PANI exists in the form of irregular aggregates, and large gaps exist between the stacked aggregates. After HCl doping which mainly occurs on quinone nitrogen atoms, the gaps between aggregates become smaller which leads to a certain crystallinity for the aggregates. Subsequently, we use the doped PANI to fabricate ammonia sensor, and test its sensitivity towards gases at room temperature. Its sensitivity increases with the increase of ammonia concentration and have a good selectivity for ammonia.
PZT piezoelectric ceramics have excellent piezoelectric properties, which paves the way to fabricate piezoelectric nanogenerators with high output. In our work, the aligned PZT nanowires are prepared by electrospinning and calcination process. They were fixed on flexible substrates and made into PZT piezoelectric nanogenerators. It is determined that the output signal is a real piezoelectric signal through the polarization reversal experiment. When the driving frequency is 5 Hz, the output of the generator is about 0.15 V, and the output of the current is about 1.5 nA. The PZT piezoelectric nanogenerator and PANI gas sensor are combined to fabricate a self-powered gas sensor. The sensor can achieve the monitoring of different concentrations of ammonia, whose current output increases with the increase of ammonia concentration.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/228991
Collection物理科学与技术学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张东艺. 自驱动聚苯胺氨气传感器[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2018.
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