兰州大学机构库 >物理科学与技术学院
柔性纳米发电机的制备及其在自驱动紫外传感器的应用
Alternative TitlePreparation of flexible nanogenerator and its application in self-powered ultraviolet sensor
张璐
Thesis Advisor秦勇
2017-04-14
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword纳米发电机 纳米线 微米柱 自驱动系统 紫外传感器
Abstract

随着科学技术的快速发展,柔性电子设备在可穿戴电子器件、可植入式电子器件、人造皮肤等不同领域得到广泛研究。电源是柔性电子器件的核心部分,制备合适的柔性电源是实现电子器件柔性化的关键步骤。因此,柔性电源技术的研究对于柔性电子设备的应用与发展而言意义重大。柔性纳米发电机作为新型纳米发电技术,可以有效地将环境中的机械能转化为电能,该技术在实现柔性电子器件的电能供给方面具有巨大的应用潜力。本论文中,主要从提高柔性纳米发电机的可靠性、输出性能以及柔性纳米发电机在自驱动紫外传感器中的应用展开研究。

利用反应离子束刻蚀技术为纤维基ZnO纳米线阵列制作PDMS保护层,该保护层可以大幅提升复合结构的力学性能。将加固后的纤维基ZnO纳米线进行编织,制备高可靠性的纤维基柔性纳米发电机。该柔性纳米发电机经过3600 s的高强度机械运动测试,其输出信号仍然保持稳定。在法拉第笼辅助作用下,利用反应离子束刻蚀技术在聚合物表面制备角度在0°至90°范围内可精确控制的纳米线阵列。该方法具有普适性,可在不同聚合物表面制备倾斜纳米线阵列。我们首次利用倾斜纳米线阵列提高柔性摩擦纳米发电机的输出性能。相比于常规垂直纳米线阵列,其输出在开路电压、短路电流和感应电荷量方面分别提高73%、150%和98%。利用倾斜光刻和倒模技术,在织物表面制备倾斜PDMS微米柱阵列。使用具有倾斜微米柱阵列的织物制作可穿着摩擦纳米发电机,其中倾斜微米柱阵列可以显著提升摩擦发电机的输出性能。该发电机的输出电压、电流和瞬时输出功率分别为1014.2 V、51.9 mA和3.4 mW。利用尼龙和涤纶织物制备独立摩擦层式可穿着摩擦纳米发电机,该发电机不受独立摩擦层材料的限制可以同时收集垂直接触分离式和横向滑动式的驱动能量。在制备过程中,利用反应离子书刻蚀在织物表面制备纳米线阵列增加摩擦面的接触面积,以及利用等离子体在织物表面进行含氟基团修饰提升织物材料的得电子能力。

最后,研究了柔性纳米发电机在自驱动紫外传感器方面的应用。将纤维基纳米发电机和纤维基紫外传感器组成柔性自驱动紫外传感系统,实现对5 mW/cm2至12 mW/cm2紫外强度的定量探测。此外,由于不同强度紫外线对ZnO纳米线内部载流子浓度的调控作用,通过监测发电机的输出实现对紫外强度的定量探测,因此该纤维基纳米发电机可以作为自驱动紫外传感器。

Other Abstract

With the rapid development of science and technology, flexible electronics are widely studied in many areas, such as wearable electronics, implantable electronics and artificial skins. Power supply device plays an important role in flexible electronics, the critical procedure of realization of flexible electronics is to achieve appropriate flexible power supply device. Hence, to study flexible power supply technique is very meaningful for the application and development of flexible electronics. In this dissertation, the main works focus on improving the reliability and output performance of flexible nanogenerator (FNG) and its application in self-powered UV sensor.

The reactive ion etching (RIE) was utilized to make a PDMS protective layer for fiber based ZnO nanowire arrays, which can substantially improve the robustness of the hybrid structure. And then, the enhanced fiber based ZnO nanowire arrays were woven into a high reliability fiber based piezoelectric nanogenerator, whose output can still keep stable after 3600 s severe mechanical driving test.With the assistance of Faraday cage, the RIE was utilized to fabricate oblique nanowire arrays on polymer films, whose obliquity can be accurately controlled from 0° to 90°. This approach can be applied to fabricate oblique nanowire on different polymers. The oblique nanowire arrays were firstly used to improve the output performance of triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Compared with the conventional vertical nanowire array, the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and inductive charges were improved by 73%, 150% and 98%.The couple of inclined lithography and replica molding were adopted to fabricate oblique PDMS microrod arrays on fabric. The oblique PDMS microrod array was used to enhance the output performance of wearable TENG, the output voltage, current and instantaneous power can reach 1014.2 V, 51.9 mA and 3.4 mW, respectively.The nylon and dacron fabrics were used to fabricate freestanding triboelectric-layer-based TENG, which can harvest the mechanical energy of contact-separation driven mode and lateral sliding driven mode without the limitation of the triboelectric layer. In the fabrication process of TENG, we fabricated nanowire arrays on the fabric surface to enhance the contact area of TENG, and the fluorinated surface modification by plasma etching was conducted to improve the ability of gaining electrons.

Finally, fiber based FNG and fiber based UV sensor were connected in series to form a self-powered system which can detect the UV intensity from 5 mW/cm2 to 12 mW/cm2, quantitatively. In addition, the output of FNG can be adjusted by changing the carrier density of ZnO nanowire in different UV intensities, the fiber based FNG can act as a self-powered UV sensor.

URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/229443
Collection物理科学与技术学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张璐. 柔性纳米发电机的制备及其在自驱动紫外传感器的应用[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2017.
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