兰州大学机构库 >物理科学与技术学院
锂离子电池金属氧化物阳极的纳米结构设计与制备
Alternative TitleEngineering and fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide anodes for high performance lithium ion batteries
王星辉
Thesis Advisor贺德衍
2013-06-05
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Keyword锂离子电池 过渡族金属氧化物 高性能阳极 面积比容量 纳米结构
Abstract锂离子电池由于具有能量密度大、工作电压高、循环寿命长和对环境污染小等优点成为了目前最为重要的二次电池。本论文以NiO为主要研究对象,制备出一系列具有优异循环稳定性和倍率性能的NiO电极。并在此基础上,将研究对象拓展到了Co3<下标!>O4<下标!>。 主要研究内容与结果如下: 1、采用简单的热氧化方法在泡沫镍上原位制备了纳米多孔结构NiO电极。实验表明,在0.2 C下循环50次后,放电质量比容量为783 mA h g-1<上标!>,面积比容量约为0.39 mA h cm-2<上标!>。 2、结合电沉积法和热氧化法,首次制备出循环稳定性和倍率性能俱佳的NiO纳米锥阵列电极。在0.2 C下循环100次后,电极的放电面积比容量达到了0.85 mA h cm-2<上标!>。与在泡沫镍上原位制备的纳米多孔结构NiO电极比较,提高了90%。 3、采用溶剂热法并辅以热退火,在泡沫镍上制备出厚度达~5.3 m的介孔NiO纳米片网络结构电极。在0.2 C下循环50次后,面积比容量为1.43 mA h cm-2<上标!>。与热氧化法制备的纳米多孔结构电极和纳米锥阵列电极相比较,面积比容量分别提高了276 %和74 %。 4、采用简单的湿化学方法并辅以热退火,在泡沫镍上制备出了厚度为~5.8 m的介孔Co3<下标!>O4<下标!>纳米片网络结构电极。性能测试表明,该电极不但有较高的质量比容量、优异的循环稳定性和倍率性能,而且具有了与商用电池阳极可比拟的面积比容量。
Other AbstractLithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as the most promising power sources because of their high energy density, high working voltage, long cycle life, stable discharge voltage, low self-discharge rates, no memory effect and environmental friendliness. The commercialized graphite-based anode materials exhibit excellent capacity retention performance, but the low theoretical specific capacity (372 mA h g-1<上标!>) and worse rate capability, which limit the application for high energy density and power density batteries. Therefore, it is essential to develop new anode materials with higher specific capacity to replace graphite. Transition metal oxides have been considered as promising alternative anode materials for LIB applications owing to their high theoretical capacities. In this thesis, we designed and fabricated a series of self-supported nanostructured NiO electrodes for high performance LIBs by combining the advantage of nanomaterials and thin film. The electrodes exhibit not only high specific capacities and excellent rate capability, but also the improved areal capacities. Based on the results of the NiO system, we extend the research object to the Co3<下标!>O4<下标!> anode. The main contents and results are listed below: 1. A simple thermal oxidation approach has been used to fabricate nanostructured NiO electrodes. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that the NiO electrode exhibits excellent rate capability and cycle performance. It can deliver a reversible capacity up to 783 mA h g-1<上标!> (the corresponding areal capacity is 0.39 mA h cm-2<上标!>) after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C, and a capacity higher than 375 mA h g-1<上标!> at a rate as high as 20 C. Moreover, porous NiO electrodes with different pore sizes are obtained at various oxidation conditions. The effects of the nanopore sizes and mass loading on the electrochemical properties of the prepared NiO electrodes have been systematic investigated. 2. NiO nanocone array (NCA) electrode with high capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate capability was fabricated by combining electrodeposition with thermal oxidation method. It was shown that the electrode can deliver a reversible capacity up to 1058 mA h g-1<上标!> (the corresponding areal capacity is 0.85 mA h cm-2<上标!>) after 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C, and a capacity higher than 436 mA h g-1<上标!> at a rate as high as 10 C. It is important to not...
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/229623
Collection物理科学与技术学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王星辉. 锂离子电池金属氧化物阳极的纳米结构设计与制备[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2013.
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