兰州大学机构库 >物理科学与技术学院
金属纳米颗粒的制备及性能表征
Alternative TitlePreparation and Characterization of Metallic Nanopowders
黎明
Thesis Advisor闫鹏勋
2005-05-12
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name硕士
Keyword金属纳米粉体 约束弧等离子体 形貌
Abstract"金属纳米粉体材料是国内外正在兴起的高科技新领域。由于金属纳米微粒的特殊结构,使其具有小尺寸效应、表面效应、量子尺寸效应和宏观量子隧道效应等新奇物理特性。从而使其在光学、热学、电学、磁学、力学、化学性质、敏感特性和表面稳定性等方面发生质的突变,呈现出许多既不同于宏观物质,也不同于单个孤立原子的奇异现象。近年来,金属纳米粉体材料的理论基础研究和应用开发在国内外受到高度重视,成为材料科学和凝聚态物理领域中的重要课题。 本文综述了纳米科技的产生与发展历程,以及金属纳米粉体的制备与应用领域。着重介绍了本实验室自行研制的约束弧等离子体电弧法制备金属纳米粉体设备,并总结了利用约束弧等离子体电弧法制备各种金属纳米粉体材料的研究工作: (1)利用自行研制的设备成功地制备了高质量的铜、铝、铁、锌等纳米粉体材料。并借助X射线衍射(XRD)、透射电子显微镜(TEM)、电子衍射(ED)、热重(TGA)和差示扫描量热法(DSC)、BET吸附-脱附等现代分析测试手段,分别对纳米颗粒晶体结构、晶粒大小、晶粒形貌、热稳定性和孔结构等特性进行全面表征。 (2)用谢乐公式计算了铜、锌、铝等纳米颗粒的平均粒径;利用比表面积法(BET法)计算纳米颗粒的比表面积、孔容、孔径等催化参数。结果表明,金属纳米粉体材料可用作化学反应的催化剂。 (3)本文结合实验参数、样品测试数据,对在约束弧等离子体条件下,特殊形貌晶粒的生长机理进行了初步的分析和讨论。 (4)用化学沉淀法、原电池法等化学方法分别制备了多面体、线状、树状等多种形态的纳米银。并利用TEM、XRD、FTIR、UV-VIS等现代分析测试手段,表征了多种不同形态纳米银的表面形貌及其微观结构,并对最佳反应条件、配比、反应原理作了初步讨论。 "
Other Abstract"Nanometer technology is a newly arisen front science in science research field in recent twenty years. Because nanoparticles are the untra-fine particles that the particles size generally within the scope of 1~100 nm, nanoparticles indicate characteristics such as small size effect, surface effect, quantum size effect and quanta tunnel effect, etc. Consequently result in the dramatic properties in mechanics, calorifics, electrics, optics, magnetic, chemistry properties, sensitive and surface stability, and appear many strange phenomena differ from the macroscopic materials and single isolated atom. Recent years, the great progress and fruitful achievements have been made in nanomaterials studies. Therefore, nanometer technology will arouse great interest for theoretical researches, application and exploration, etc. This thesis reviews the production and development of nanometer technology as well as the preparation and application of the metallic nanopowders, and particularly introduces the plasma apparatus self-designed and fabricated by ourselves. Our experimental method is based upon the physical method of preparation metallic nanopowders by condensed arc discharging plasma method. The thesis summarized the research work of preparing the production of nanopowders by condensed arc discharging plasma method. Some important results are as follows: (1) The pure Ni, Cu, Fe, Zn nanopowders of high quality were fabricated successfully by condensed arc discharging plasma method. The crystal microstructure, morphology, heat stability, the specific surface area, pore structure and specific surface area of asdeposited nano-powders were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM),the corresponding electron diffraction (ED), thermogravimetric analyzer(TGA), diffirential scanning calorimeter(DSC)and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET),respectively. (2) The average size of metallic nanoparticles was estimated by Scherrer formula. In addition, the surface area, pore volume, pore size of metallic nanopowders accurately calculated by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area method. As a result, the metallic nanopowders can be used as the material in the chemical promoter. (3) In a condensed arc discharging plasma conditions, this article discussed the growth meachanism of heterogeneous reaction of metallic nanopowders by experimental parameters and chemical analysis data. (4) This article demonstrate...
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/229696
Collection物理科学与技术学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
黎明. 金属纳米颗粒的制备及性能表征[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2005.
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