兰州大学机构库 >生命科学学院
生物与非生物因子对不同类型植物生物量分配模式的影响
Alternative TitleEffect of biotic and abiotic factors on biomass allocation pattern for different plant types
陈仁飞
Thesis Advisor邓建明
2019-05-17
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword代谢理论 生物量分配 异速关系 生物因子 非生物因子
Abstract物质能量代谢与分配是所有生命体的基本特征,其代谢与分配规律是生物学家尤其生态学家所关注的重要科学问题。植物的物质能量代谢与分配在生态系统中扮演着重要角色,因为植物光合产物在不同器官间的分配不但影响物种的适合度、产量,还将影响整个生态系统中的物质循环和能量循环与分配及其他生态系统功能。而植物为了适应立地环境条件,其物质能量分配往往受其环境因子以及生物因子的共同调控。然而,温带荒漠植物在其水分、温度等环境因子交替胁迫条件下,其不同生活型植物如灌木和草本的物质能量分配规律尚不清楚。而且这些生物因子和非生物因子将如何调控植物物质能量分配,以及是否存在一般性调控规律也不得而知。因此,本论文主要以干旱荒漠植物以及全球森林为研究对象对上述重要科学问题进行探索。首先,本课题研究了两类不同生活型荒漠植物的物质能量分配规律。同时,基于全球森林数据以及近年来我们调查的荒漠植物数据,建立了非生物因子和生物因子调控植物物质能量分配的一般性理论模型。我们还结合控制论和亲缘选择理论探讨了在邻体间相互作用条件下,植物个体如何实现营养器官和生殖器官间的最优物质能量分配策略。主要研究结果如下:1、干旱荒漠区短命草本植物与灌木的地上地下生物量分配遵循异速分配原则,即生物量分配异速指数不等于1,这与森林植物遵循的等速分配原则明显不同。而且荒漠植物地上部分与地下部分生物量分配的异速指数呈现出物种和环境特异性。短命草本植物生物量分配的异速指数主要受降雨量的驱动,即干旱区与半干旱区的短命植物生物量分配规律明显不同。相反,降雨对灌木的生物量分配异速指数影响不显著。温度对短命草本植物生物量分配的异速指数影响不大,即温带和暖温带的短命植物生物量分配差异不显著。但环境温度对荒漠灌木生物量分配具有显著影响,即在温带与暖温带荒漠灌木植物的生物量分配模式具有明显差异。而且,短命植物和灌木的根冠比与总生物量,地上生物量间的回归关系较弱,但其根冠比与地下生物量间的回归关系较强。这主要由于荒漠短命草本植物为了在生长季(即雨季)迅速完成生活史而相对地把更多物质能量分配到地上部分生长。相反,灌木则需要把更多物质能量分配到地下根系生长来躲避冬季低温的胁迫以及获得土壤深层或地下水。2、不同类型的全球森林数据的分析结果显示生物相互作用间的异速指数与理论预测一致。双变量回归分析显示,叶比重与株高呈反比例关系,而叶比重与密度间呈正比例关系,但叶比重受年均降雨 (MAP) 与年均温 (MAT) 的影响较小。森林植物地上比重受株高和密度以及年均温与年均降雨的影响都小。而且,多重回归和结构方程模型的分析呈现类似结果,三个森林数据库分开分析也呈现类似结果。温度对荒漠植物叶比重的影响较强,其他生物和非生物因子对其的影响相对较弱。将森林植物与荒漠植物数据综合分析发现,生物因子对叶比重的影响大于非生物因子对其的影响,而所有生物和非生物因子对植物地上比重的影响均较弱。3、数据显示年均温或年均降雨对叶生物量与总生物量间的异速截距,叶比重与株高间异速截距都有显著影响。对全球森林数据分析发现,尽管气候因子对全球森林树木的地上比重和叶比重影响很微弱,但在不同科水平上气候对叶比重和地上比重的相对变异系数具有较强影响。此外,基于蒙特卡洛模拟分析显示十个科的生物量比重的重合度显著高于气候因子的重合度。该结果表明不同类型的植物受其分布范围的立地环境因子胁迫而呈现出不同的生物量分配模式,而非受到全球范围内的气候变量梯度的驱动。4、正负亲缘选择为植物从营养生长向生殖生长转变过程提供了另外一种解释植物最优生活史策略的机制,并且该理论分析为提高农作物在种群水平上的产量提供理论基础。本论文通过对上述科学问题的探索不仅揭示了不同植物类型和不同环境条件下植物物质能量分配模式及其调控机制,而且初步建立了生物因子和非生物因子调控植物物质能量分配的一般性理论体系。这不仅可以为进一步探讨植物生物量分配等速理论和最适分配理论的普适性奠定了基础,而且在提高农业产量、荒漠化防治和优化森林生态系统管理等方面均具有重要的科学指导意义。
Other AbstractResource metabolism and allocation are the basic traits of all organisms. The metabolic and allocation rules are the central scientific issues, and many biologists and ecologists pay much attention to them. Plant resource metabolism and allocation play an important role in the ecosystem because the allocation of plant photosynthetic product between different plant organ parts not only affects species fitness and product, but also it affects the resource circulation and other functions in the whole ecosystem. Plant resource allocation pattern is often influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors in order to adapt to the local environment. However, it is still not clear how the biomass allocation patterns of desert plants such as shrubs and ephemerals are regulated by the interactive stress of environmental factors such as water and temperature. Moreover, how these biotic and abiotic factors regulate plant biomass allocation pattern and whether there is a general regulation law is still unknown. Therefore, we focus on this program based on the data from desert plants and global forests. First, we study the biomass allocation pattern and the intrinsic mechanism for two different types of desert plants. Second, we develop a general theoretical framework to discuss the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on plant biomass allocation pattern based on the desert plant data we surveyed in the field and global forest data. In addition, based on the theory from optimal control and kin selection, we study how plants achieve the optimal allocation strategy between plant vegetative organ and reproductive organ under the interactions among neighborhoods. According to the analysis, we achieve the following conclusions:1. The scaling relationship between above- and belowground biomass is allometric for both desert ephemerals and shrubs (i.e. the scaling exponent is not 1)which is much different from that of forests. Moreover, the numerical values of the scaling exponents exhibit species- and environmental-specific patterns. For ephemeral species, the numerical values of the scaling exponents of above- vs. belowground biomass sorted for rainfall are significantly different between species in arid zones and in semiarid zones. In contrast, the scaling exponents for desert shrubs are numerically insensitive to differences in rainfall in arid zones and semiarid zones. For ephemeral species, the scaling exponents are insensitive to differences in temperature in temperate zones and warm temperate zones. For desert shrub species, however, the numerical values of the scaling exponents differ significantly with respect to the differences in temperature in temperate zones and warm temperate zones. The regression relationships for root-shoot ratio vs. total biomass and root-shoot ratio vs. aboveground biomass are statistically much weaker in comparison with these of root-shoot ratio vs. belowground biomass for both ephemeral plants and desert shrubs. The main reason is that ephemerals allocate more biomass to aboveground to finish the life history during the rainy season, while desert shrubs need to allocate more to belowground to reduce the damage from low temperature and to achieve available water from underground.2. The numerical values of the empirically determined scaling exponents for biotic interactions are in statistical agreement with those predicted by theoretical models for the worldwide forest datasets and different forest growth types. Pairwise correlation analysis shows that the leaf biomass fraction for all forest communities is inversely proportional to plant height and have a positive correlation with plant density, but is little affected by mean annual precipitation and temperature (MAP and MAT). However, the shoot biomass fractions are insensitive to differences in plant density and plant height as well as MAP and MAT. Moreover, multiple regression analyses and structural equation models also show similar results. The same results are observed for each of the three forest datasets. The temperature has a relatively strong effect on plant leaf biomass fraction for desert plants in comparison with other biotic and abiotic factors. With the pooled data from both forest and desert plants, the analysis shows that biotic factors have a bigger effect on plant leaf biomass fraction than abiotic factors, and all biotic and abiotic factors have much weak effect on shoot biomass fraction.3. The data show that either MAP or MAT, or both have a statistically discernable effect on the numerical values of normalization constants for the scaling relationships of leaf vs. total biomass and leaf biomass fraction vs. height. Both the Relative Variation Coefficient of leaf biomass and shoot biomass fraction are significantly proportional to that of climate across all of the plant families in forest data sets although the climate has a weak effect on leaf and shoot biomass fraction for total forest data. According to Monte Carlo simulations, our statistical analyses show that the overlap in the numerical values of biomass fractions across ten families is significantly higher than that for climatic factors. The results indicate that plants with different types have different biomass allocation pattern under the influence of the local environment rather than under the global climate gradients.4. The effects of both positive and negative kin selection on plant transition process from vegetative growth to reproductive growth provide another mechanism to explain plant optimal life history strategies, and the theoretical analyses lay the foundation for improving crop yield in population level.According to the research, we observed the mechanisms that regulate plant biomass allocation pattern for different plant types under different environmental conditions, and we developed a general theoretical framework about plant resource allocation pattern under the regulation of both biotic and abiotic factors. This will provide a foundation for further discussing the generality of isometric theory and optimal allocation theory. In addition, it will have great significance in improving agricultural yield and the management of desert and forest ecosystems.
Pages124
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/341892
Collection生命科学学院
Affiliation生命科学学院
First Author AffilicationSchool of Life Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈仁飞. 生物与非生物因子对不同类型植物生物量分配模式的影响[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2019.
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