Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)
Source PublicationAUTOPHAGY
AbstractIn 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
WOS Research AreaCell Biology
WOS SubjectCell Biology
WOS IDWOS:000636121800001
Original Document TypeReview
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Cited Times:650[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.Univ Michigan, Life Sci Inst, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA;
2.Univ Michigan, Dept Mol Cellular & Dev Biol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA;
3.Ain Shams Univ, Fac Pharm, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol, Cairo, Egypt;
4.European Inst Oncol IRCCS, Dept Expt Oncol, IEO, Milan, Italy;
5.Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Pharmaceut & Biomed Sci, Dept Pharmaceut Biol, Mainz, Germany;
6.Med Univ Graz, Div Cardiol, Graz, Austria;
7.Pasteur Inst Iran, Dept Hepatitis & HIV, Tehran, Iran;
8.Leibniz Inst Plant Biochem, Dept Mol Signal Proc, Halle, Saale, Germany;
9.Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Dept Biochem & Food Sci, Rehovot, Israel;
10.Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, RNA & Autophagy Grp, Copenhagen, Denmark;
11.Univ Tromso Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Med Biol, Tromso, Norway;
12.Hosp Univ Canarias, Res Unit, Santa Cruz De Tenerife, Spain;
13.CIBERNED, Santa Cruz De Tenerife, Spain;
14.Univ La Laguna, ITB, Santa Cruz De Tenerife, Spain;
15.Univ Calif Davis, Div Rheumatol Allergy & Clin Immunol, Sacramento, CA 95817 USA;
16.Univ Toronto, Dept Biochem, Toronto, ON, Canada;
17.Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Med 1, Innsbruck, Austria;
18.Univ Calabria, Dept Pharm Hlth & Nutr Sci, Arcavacata Di Rende, CS, Italy;
19.NEI, NIH, Prot Struct & Funct Sect, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA;
20.Ben Gurion Univ Negev, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Clin Biochem & Pharmacol, Beer Sheva, Israel;
21.Univ Alabama Birmingham, Div Nephrol, Birmingham, AL USA;
22.Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham VA Med Ctr, Birmingham, AL USA;
23.Inflammat Res Ctr, San Diego, CA USA;
24.Univ Palermo, Dipartimento Sci & Tecnol Biol Chim & Farmaceut S, Palermo, Italy;
25.VIB KU Leuven, Dept Cellular & Mol Med, Cell Death Res & Therapy CDRT Lab, Ctr Canc Biol, Leuven, Belgium;
26.Indian Inst Technol, Ropar, India;
27.Univ Dundee, Sch Life Sci, MRC Prot Phosphorylat & Ubiquitylat Unit, Dundee, Scotland;
28.Univ Texas Med Branch, Dept Pathol, Galveston, TX 77555 USA;
29.Colby Coll, Dept Biol, Waterville, ME 04901 USA;
30.Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Otorhinolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA;
31.Univ Maryland, Dept Ophthalmol, Sch Med, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA;
32.Univ Maryland, Dept Visual Sci, Sch Med, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA;
33.Univ Mayor, Ctr Integrat Biol, Santiago, Chile;
34.Univ Mayor, Gerosci Ctr Brain Hlth & Metab, Santiago, Chile;
35.Lund Univ, Dept Expt Med Sci, Cell Death Lysosomes & Artificial Intelligence Gr, Lund, Sweden;
36.Nihon Univ, Coll Bioresource Sci, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan;
37.Koc Univ, Sch Med, Dept Mol Biol & Genet, Istanbul, Turkey;
38.Koc Univ, KUTTAM Res Ctr Translat Med, Sch Med, Istanbul, Turkey;
39.Univ Crete, Sch Med, Lab Clin Microbiol & Microbial Pathogenesis, Iraklion, Crete, Greece;
40.Fdn Res & Technol, Inst Mol Biol & Biotechnol IMBB, Iraklion, Crete, Greece;
41.Inst Canc Res, Canc Therapeut Unit, Sutton, Surrey, England;
42.Gulf Med Univ, Coll Pharm, Pharmaceut Sci Dept, Ajman, U Arab Emirates;
43.Univ Sydney, Dept Pathol, Sydney, NSW, Australia;
44.Univ Sydney, Bosch Inst, Sydney, NSW, Australia;
45.Insight Inst Neurosurg & Neurosci, Dept Res, Flint, MI USA;
46.McGill Univ, Dept Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada;
47.McGill Univ, Dept Oncol, Montreal, PQ, Canada;
48.McGill Univ, Segal Canc Ctr, Montreal, PQ, Canada;
49.Tech Univ Dresden, Ctr Mol & Cellular Bioengn CMCB, Biotechnol Ctr BIOTEC, Dept Cellular Biochem, Dresden, Germany;
50.Univ Seville, Fac Psicol, Dept Psicol Expt, Seville, Spain;
51.Sapienza Univ Rome, Dept Clin Internal Anesthesiol & Cardiovasc Sci, Rome, Italy;
52.Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Wilmer Eye Inst, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA;
53.Univ Rajshahi, Dept Pharm, Rajshahi, Bangladesh;
54.Islamic Univ Gaza, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Med Lab Sci, Gaza, Palestine;
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56.Univ Barcelona, Fac Pharm, Dept Biochem & Physiol, Barcelona, Spain;
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58.Francis Crick Inst, Mol Cell Biol Autophagy, London, England;
59.Cleveland Clin, Dept Canc Biol, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA;
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62.Inst Invest Ingn Genet & Biol Mol Dr Hector N Tor, Lab Senalizac & Mecanismos Adaptat Tripanosomatid, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina;
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67.Univ Cote dAzur, Team Labeled Lab Excellence LABEX Distalz, CNRS, INSERM,IPMC, Valbonne, France;
68.Univ Pavia, Dept Drug Sci, Pharmacol Unit, Pavia, Italy;
69.Univ Camerino, Sch Biosci & Vet Med, Camerino, Italy;
70.Univ Porto, Fac Pharm, REQUIMTE, UCIBIO, Porto, Portugal;
71.Telethon Inst Genet & Med TIGEM, Naples, Italy;
72.Ohio State Univ, Dept Microbial Infect & Immun, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;
73.Ohio State Univ, Infect Dis Res Inst, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;
74.Univ Calif San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;
75.Aarhus Univ, Dept Mol Biol & Genet, Aarhus C, Denmark;
76.Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Pharmacol, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA;
77.Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Neurol, UAB Stn, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA;
78.Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Dept Med, Nephrol Div, Lab Clin & Expt Immunol, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil;
79.Univ Nove Julho UNINOVE, Fac Pharm, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil;
80.Cedars Sinai Med Ctr, Smidt Heart Inst, Los Angeles, CA 90048 USA;
81.Univ Bologna, Dept Pharm & Biotechnol, Bologna, Italy;
82.City Hope Comprehens Canc Ctr, Beckman Res Inst, Dept Diabet Complicat & Metab, Duarte, CA USA;
83.Univ Tennessee, Dept Chem & Biomol Engn, Knoxville, TN USA;
84.Northeast Ohio Med Univ, Dept Anat & Neurobiol, Rootstown, OH USA;
85.Univ Nova Lisboa, Fac Ciencias Med, iNOVA4Hlth Chron Dis Res Ctr CEDOC, Lisbon, Portugal;
86.Univ Cologne, Max Planck Inst Biol Ageing, Cologne, Germany;
87.Univ Cologne, CECAD, Cologne, Germany;
88.Univ Bristol, Fac Life Sci, Sch Biochem, Bristol, Avon, England;
89.Univ Helsinki, Mol & Integrat Biosci Res Programme, Helsinki, Finland;
90.Univ Paris Saclay, INSERM, UMR S 1193, Chatenay Malabry, France;
91.Univ Valencia, Fac Med, Dept Pharmacol, Valencia, Spain;
92.CIBERehd Ctr Networked Biomed Res Hepat & Digest, Valencia, Spain;
93.Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Natl Inst Neurosci, Dept Peripheral Nervous Syst Res, Tokyo, Japan;
94.Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Dent, Osaka, Japan;
95.Tokyo Univ Pharm & Life Sci, Sch Life Sci, Tokyo, Japan;
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97.Jikei Univ, Div Resp Dis, Dept Internal Med, Sch Med, Tokyo, Japan;
98.Newcastle Univ, Biosci Inst, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England;
99.CSIC, Inst Cajal, Madrid, Spain;
100.CIBERFES, Madrid, Spain;
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102.Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Med, Bronx, NY USA;
103.Howard Univ, Dept Anat, Coll Med, Washington, DC USA;
104.Tohoku Univ, Grad Sch Life Sci, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan;
105.Imperial Coll London, MRC Ctr Mol Bacteriolgy & Infect, Dept Microbiol, London, England;
106.Toulouse Univ, Ctr Integrat Biol CBI, Res Ctr Anim Cognit CRCA, UPS,CNRS, Toulouse, France;
107.Iowa State Univ, Dept Genet Dev & Cell Biol, Roy J Carver Colab, Ames, IA USA;
108.Univ Nacl Cordoba, Hosp Nacl Clin, Lab Oncohematol, CONICET, Cordoba, Argentina;
109.York Coll CUNY, Dept Biol, Jamaica, NY USA;
110.Incl Hlth Res Inst, Translat Genom Grp, Valencia, Spain;
111.Univ Valencia, Interdisciplinary Res Struct Biotechnol & Biomed, Valencia, Spain;
112.Univ Palermo, Dept Biol Chem & Pharmaceut Sci & Technol, Palermo, Italy;
113.Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Mol Pharmacol, Bronx, NY 10467 USA;
114.Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, Univ Caddesi 27, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey;
115.Sabanci Univ Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr SUNUM, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey;
116.Meir Med Ctr, Translat Hematooncol Lab, Kefar Sava, Israel;
117.Tel Aviv Univ, Sackler Sch Med, Dept Human Mol Genet & Biochem, Tel Aviv, Israel;
118.Polish Acad Sci, Inst Genet & Anim Biotechnol, Magdalenka, Poland;
119.Med Univ Vienna, Ludwig Boltzmann Inst Digital Hlth & Patient Safe, Vienna, Austria;
120.Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Neurobiol, Sofia, Bulgaria;
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123.Childrens Hosp Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA;
124.Univ Nice, Mediterranean Ctr Mol Med, Inserm U1065, Nice, France;
125.Imperial Coll London, Fac Med, London, England;
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127.Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol, Baltimore, MD USA;
128.Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;
129.Univ Turin, Dept Clin & Biol Sci, Turin, Italy;
130.Univ Milan, Dept Hlth Sci, Milan, Italy;
131.Univ Santiago Chile, Fac Chem & Biol, Dept Biol, Santiago, Chile;
132.Fdn Ist Ric Pediat Citt Speranza, Neuroblastoma Lab, Padua, Italy;
133.Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Alexander Silberman Inst Life Sci, Dept Plant & Environm Sci, Edmond Safra Campus, Jerusalem, Israel;
134.Tulane Hlth Sci Ctr, Dept Pathol & Lab Sci, New Orleans, LA USA;
135.Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Dementia Res Ctr, Florey Inst Neurosci & Mental Hlth, Parkville, Vic, Australia;
136.Univ Arkansas Med Sci, Dept Geriatr, Little Rock, AR USA;
137.Univ Malta, Dept Physiol & Biochem, Msida, Malta;
138.Kogakuin Univ, Res Inst Sci & Technol, Tokyo, Japan;
139.Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Biochem, Bronx, NY USA;
140.Eastern Michigan Univ, Dept Chem, Ypsilanti, MI 48197 USA;
141.Hanyang Univ, Coll Pharm, Ansan, Gyeonggido, South Korea;
142.Yonsei Univ, Severance Biomed Sci Inst, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea;
143.Univ Massachusetts, Dept Mol Cell & Canc Biol, Med Sch, Worcester, MA USA;
144.Konkuk Univ, Dept Biosci & Biotechnol, Seoul, South Korea;
145.Ajou Univ, Coll Pharm, Suwon, South Korea;
146.Ajou Univ, Res Inst Pharmaceut Sci & Technol RIPST, Suwon, South Korea;
147.Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Seoul, South Korea;
148.Univ Calabria, Dept Pharm Hlth Sci & Nutr, Sect Preclin & Translat Pharmacol, Cosenza, Italy;
149.Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Inst Expt Biol, Dept Gen Bot, Fac Biol, Poznan, Poland;
150.Iowa State Univ, Ames, IA USA;
151.Kunming Univ Sci & Technol, Med Sch, Kunming, Yunnan, Peoples R China;
152.Dept Acad Affairs, Natl Jewish Hlth, Denver, CO USA;
153.Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr San Antonio, Dept Cell Syst & Anat, San Antonio, TX 78229 USA;
154.Jadavpur Univ, Ctr Math Biol & Ecol, Dept Math, Kolkata, India;
155.Karolinska Inst, Dept Cell & Mol Biol, Stockholm, Sweden;
156.Univ Genoa, Dept Earth Environm & Life Sci, Genoa, Italy;
157.Univ Siena, Dept Life Sci, Siena, Italy;
158.Univ Urbino Carlo Bo, Dept Biomol Sci, Urbino, Italy;
159.Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA;
160.Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Translat Med Sci, Naples, Italy;
161.Inst Res & Technol Food & Agr IRTA, Anim Breeding & Genet Programme, Caldes De Montbui, Spain;
162.Max Planck Inst Mol Plant Physiol, Potsdam, Germany;
163.UCL Queen Sq Inst Neurol, Reta Lila Weston Inst, London, England;
164.Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Ankara, Turkey;
165.Univ Miami, Dept Surg, Miami, FL USA;
166.Univ Miami, Sylvester Comprehens Canc Ctr, Miami, FL USA; Univ Cote dAzur, INSERM, CNRS, Inst Biol Valrose, Nice, France;
167.Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Agr & Biol, Shanghai, Peoples R China;
168.Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Chem, Dept Biochem, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil;
169.Univ Bologna, Dept Biomed & Neuromotor Sci, Bologna, Italy;
170.Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dept Biol, Rome, Italy;
171.Ist Ricovero & Cura Carattere Sci IRCCS Fdn Santa, Lab Cell Signaling, Rome, Italy;
172.Edinburgh Napier Univ, Sch Appl Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;
173.Univ Michigan, Dept Neurol, Ann Arbor, MI USA;
174.Pompeu Fabra Univ, Hosp del Mar IMIM, Pulmonol Dept, CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain;
175.Univ Limerick, Dept Biol Sci, Limerick, Ireland;
176.Univ Limerick, Hlth Res Inst, Limerick, Ireland;
177.Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark;
178.Rice Univ, Dept Biosci, Houston, TX USA;
179.Columbia Univ, Dept Med, New York, NY USA;
180.Jawaharlal Nehru Ctr Adv Sci Res, Mol Biol & Genet Unit, Bangalore, Karnataka, India;
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182.ICAR Indian Vet Res Inst, FMD Vaccine Res Lab, Bengaluru, India;
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185.Univ Louvain, Louvain Inst Biomol Sci & Technol LIBST, Louvain La Neuve, Belgium;
186.Trinity Coll Dublin, Sch Med, Trinity Translat Med Inst, Dublin, Ireland;
187.Univ Paris Saclay, INSERM, Hop Le Kremlin Bicetre, UMR1195, 80 Rue Gen Leclerc, F-94276 Le Kremlin Bicetre, France;
188.Univ South Carolina Upstate, Spartanburg, SC USA;
189.Univ Paris, Ctr Rech Cordeliers, Sorbonne Univ, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med INSERM, Paris, France;
190.Francis Crick Inst, London, England;
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194.Stanford Univ, Dept Chem & Syst Biol, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;
195.Emory Univ, Sch Med, Div Endocrinol Metab & Lipids, Atlanta, GA USA;
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197.Univ Queensland, Mater Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;
198.Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Munich Cluster Syst Neurol, Munich, Germany;
199.Hannover Med Sch, Dept Clin Immunol & Rheumatol, Hannover, Germany;
200.Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dept Clin Sci & Translat Med, Rome, Italy;
201.Tufts Univ, USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Lab Nutr & Vis Res, Boston, MA USA;
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203.Bar Ilan Univ, Azrieli Fac Med, Safed, Israel;
204.Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Pathobiochem, Univ Med Ctr, Mainz, Germany;
205.Boston Univ, Metcalf Sci Ctr, Boston, MA 02215 USA;
206.Sorbonne Univ, Inst Biol Phys Chim, Lab Biol Mol & Cellulaire Eucaryotes, CNRS UMR8226, Paris, France;
207.Italian Liver Fdn, Trieste, Italy;
208.Univ Rome Sapienza, Ist Pasteur Italia Fdn Cenci Bolognetti, Dept Clin & Mol Med, Rome, Italy;
209.Ctr Nacl Biotecnol CNB CSIC, Madrid, Spain;
210.Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol Mol, Madrid, Spain;
211.Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Pharmaceut Sci, Dept Pathophysiol, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil;
212.Univ Oklahoma, Stephenson Canc Ctr, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Sect Gynecol Oncol,Hlth Sci Ctr, Oklahoma City, OK USA;
213.CNRS, UMR 7242 Biotechnol & Cellular Signaling, Illkirch Graffenstaden, France;
214.Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA;
215.Univ Francisco Vitoria, Madrid, Spain;
216.South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Hopwood Ctr Neurobiol, Lifelong Hlth Theme, Adelaide, SA, Australia;
217.Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Copenhagen, Denmark;
218.Univ Lausanne Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland;
219.Lausanne Univ, Inst Pathol, Dept Lab Med & Pathol, Lausanne, Switzerland;
220.Queen Mary Univ London, Ctr Cell Biol & Cutaneous Res, Blizard Inst, London, England;
221.Univ Cologne, Cologne, Germany;
222.Univ Hosp Cologne, Cologne Excellence Cluster Cellular Stress Respon, Cologne, Germany;
223.Ctr Mol Med, Cologne, Germany;
224.Univ Massachusetts, Dept Mol Cell & Canc Biol MCCB, Med Sch, Worcester, MA USA;
225.Magna Graecia Univ Catanzaro, Dept Hlth Sci, Catanzaro, Italy;
226.Univ Paris 05, CNRS UMR8104, INSERM U1016, Inst Cochin, Paris, France;
227.Univ Bordeaux, Lab Biogenese Membranaire UMR5200, CNRS, F-33140 Bordeaux, France;
228.Univ Quebec Trois Rivieres, Dept Biol Med, Trois Rivieres, PQ, Canada;
229.Univ Michigan, Dept Ophthalmol & Visual Sci, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA;
230.Univ Montpellier, CNRS UMR5235 LPHI, Montpellier, France;
231.Univ Ghent, VIB Ctr Inflammat Res, Ghent, Belgium;
232.Univ Oxford, Kennedy Inst Rheumatol, Oxford, England;
233.Univ New Mexico, Dept Mol Genet & Microbiol, Dept Neurol, Albuquerque, NM USA;
234.Comenius Univ, Dept Biochem, Bratislava, Slovakia;
235.Univ Oklahoma, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Hlth Sci Ctr, Oklahoma City, OK USA;
236.Vanderbilt Univ, Vanderbilt Eye Inst, Med Ctr, Nashville, TN USA;
237.Post Grad Inst Med Educ & Res, Dept Biophys, Chandigarh, India;
238.Louisiana State Univ Hlth Sci Ctr Shreveport, Dept Pathol & Translat Pathobiol, Shreveport, LA USA;
239.Natl Inst Technol Rourkela, Dept Life Sci, Canc & Cell Death Lab, Rourkela, Odisha, India;
240.Michigan Technol Univ, Dept Chem, Houghton, MI 49931 USA;
241.Dalian Med Univ, Coll Basic Med Sci, Dalian, Peoples R China;
242.UNSW, Garvan Inst Med Res, Fac Med, St Vincents Med Sch, Sydney, NSW, Australia;
243.Eotvos Lorand Univ, Dept Genet, Budapest, Hungary;
244.Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Paulista Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol, Sao Paulo, Brazil;
245.Univ Hosp North Norway, Heart & Lung Clin, Tromso, Norway;
246.Univ Tromso Artic Univ Norway, Dept Clin Med, Tromso, Norway;
247.Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biomed Lab Sci, Trondheim, Norway;
248.Univ York, Dept Biol, Heslington, England;
249.Univ Valencia, Fac Med, Dept Physiol, Valencia, Spain;
250.CIBERehd, Valencia, Spain;
251.Univ Lodz, Fac Biol & Environm Protect, Lodz, Poland;
252.Linkoping Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Biomed & Clin Sci, Linkoping, Sweden;
253.Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden;
254.Karolinska Univ Hosp, Pediat Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden;
255.Indiana Univ Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA;
256.St Jude Childrens Res Hosp, Dept Immunol, 332 N Lauderdale St, Memphis, TN 38105 USA;
257.Univ Zagreb, Sch Med, Croatian Inst Brain Res, Zagreb, Croatia;
258.Univ Penn, Dept Basic & Translat Sci, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA;
259.Burnet Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;
260.Univ Coll Cork, Dept Pharmacol & Therapeut, Cork, Ireland;
261.Univ Lyon, CNRS, INSERM, INMG, Lyon, France;
262.Univ Padua, Dept Mol Med, Padua, Italy;
263.Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, Ctr Rech Cordeliers, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med, Paris, France;
264.Eunice Kennedy Shriver Natl Inst Child Hlth & Hum, NIH, Neurosci & Cellular & Struct Biol Div NCSBD, Bethesda, MD USA;
265.West Virginia Univ, Dept Surg, Morgantown, WV 26506 USA;
266.Open Univ, Fac Sci Technol Engn & Math, Sch Life Hlth & Chem Sci, Milton Keynes, Bucks, England;
267.Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Ctr Autophagy Recycling & Dis CARD, Cell Stress & Survival Unit, Copenhagen, Denmark;
268.IRCCS Bambino Gesu Childrens Hosp, Dept Pediat Hematooncol & Cell & Gene Therapy, Rome, Italy;
269.Albert Ludwigs Univ Freiburg, Fac Med, Inst Mol Med & Cell Res, Freiburg, Germany;
270.Univ Childrens Hosp Zurich, Childrens Res Ctr, Zurich, Switzerland;
271.Univ Childrens Hosp Zurich, Dept Oncol, Zurich, Switzerland;
272.Univ Texas MD Anderson Canc Ctr, Dept Leukemia, Houston, TX 77030 USA;
273.Case Western Reserve Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pediat, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA;
274.InterRayBio LLC, Baltimore, MD USA;
275.Washington State Univ, Coll Vet Med, Dept Vet Microbiol & Pathol, Pullman, WA 99164 USA;
276.Univ Santiago de Compostela, Vet Fac, Dept Pharmacol, Lugo, Spain;
277.Baylor Coll Med, Jan & Duncan Neurol Res Inst, Houston, TX 77030 USA;
278.Baylor Coll Med, Dept Mol & Human Genet, Houston, TX 77030 USA;
279.Univ Paris, PARCC, INSERM, Paris, France;
280.Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Ophthalmol & Visual Sci, Birmingham, AL USA;
281.Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Dev & Mol Biol, Bronx, NY 10467 USA;
282.Med Univ Graz, Gottfried Schatz Res Ctr Cell Signaling Metab & A, Mol Biol & Biochem, Graz, Austria;
283.Univ Paris 13, UMR S942 Inserm, Bobigny, France;
284.Univ Paris, Bobigny, France;
285.CSIC, Ctr Invest Biol Gicas Margarita Salas, Madrid, Spain;
286.Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala, Sweden;
287.Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Mol Sci, Uppsala, Sweden;
288.Imperial Coll London, Dept Life Sci, London, England;
289.Ctr Vector Biol & Zoonot Dis, Dept Environm Sci, Connecticut Agr Expt Stn, New Haven, CT USA;
290.Goethe Univ, Univ Hosp, Univ Canc Ctr Frankfurt UCT, Dept Med, Frankfurt, Germany;
291.Danube Private Univ, Dept Med Dent Med, Krems Donau, Austria;
292.Georg August Univ Gottingen, Inst Microbiol & Genet, Dept Mol Microbiol & Genet, Gottingen, Germany;
293.Univ Chile, Inst Nutr & Tecnol Alimentos INTA, Santiago, Chile;
294.Univ Paris, INSERM U1138, Sorbonne Univ, Ctr Rech Cordeliers, Paris, France;
295.Univ Zaragoza, Ctr Encefalopat & Enfermedades Transmisibles Emer, Inst Agroalimentario Aragon IA2, Inst Invest Sanitaria Aragon IISA,Lab Genet Bioqu, Zaragoza, Spain;
296.Inst Carlos III, Ctr Invest Biomed Red Enfermedades Neurodegenerat, Zaragoza, Spain;
297.Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Ctr Sci Gout & Alimentat, Eye & Nutr Res Grp, INRAE,CNRS,AgroSup Dijon, Dijon, France;
298.Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Fac Chem, Dept Biol, Mexico City, DF, Mexico;
299.Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Med, Zuckerberg San Francisco Gen Hosp, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;
300.Univ Calif San Francisco, TraumaCtr, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;
301.Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Biol Sci, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA;
302.Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, St Louis, MO 63110 USA;
303.Genentech Inc, Dept Human Genet, San Francisco, CA 94080 USA;
304.Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Neurol, David Geffen Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA;
305.Univ Colorado, Dept Pharmacol, AMC, Aurora, CO USA;
306.Univ Minnesota, Hormel Inst, 801 16th Ave NE, Austin, MN 55912 USA;
307.Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Phys Educ & Sport, Cellular & Mol Exercise Physiol Lab, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil;
308.Hosp Sick Children, Cell Biol Program, Toronto, ON, Canada;
309.Univ Insubria, Dept Biotechnol & Life Sci, Varese, Italy;
310.Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Clayton, Vic, Australia;
311.Univ Salento, Dept Biol & Environm Sci & Technol, Lecce, Italy;
312.Inst Pasteur, Biol Bacteries Intracellulaires, Paris, France;
313.Inst Pasteur, CNRS UMR 3525, Paris, France;
314.Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Med, Aging Inst, Pittsburgh, PA USA;
315.Univ Duisburg Essen, Essen Univ Hosp, Dept Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Essen, Germany;
316.Hannover Med Sch, Dept Gastroenterol Hepatol & Endocrinol, Hannover, Germany;
317.Thomas Jefferson Univ, Dept Pathol Anat & Cell Biol, Philadelphia, PA 19107 USA;
318.Buch, Shilpa;
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Klionsky, Daniel J.,Abdel-Aziz, Amal Kamal,Abdelfatah, Sara,et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)[J]. AUTOPHAGY,2021,17(1):1-382.
APA Klionsky, Daniel J..,Abdel-Aziz, Amal Kamal.,Abdelfatah, Sara.,Abdellatif, Mahmoud.,Abdoli, Asghar.,...&Linden, Ra.(2021).Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).AUTOPHAGY,17(1),1-382.
MLA Klionsky, Daniel J.,et al."Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)".AUTOPHAGY 17.1(2021):1-382.
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