兰州大学机构库 >生命科学学院
旱地春小麦植株间相互作用对群体产量的影响
Alternative TitleEffect of plant-plant interaction on group yield in dryland spring wheat
杨晓伟
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张荣 ; 杜彦磊
2021-05-23
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword春小麦 个体适合度 单播 混播 群体产量 异速关系
Abstract植株间相互作用如何形成农作物群体产量优势一直是生态学关注的热点。与自然植物提高竞争能力(优化个体适合度)适应严酷自然环境不同,农作物是在资源丰度相对改善的环境中追求群体产量的提高。截至目前,育种学家对唐纳德弱化竞争能力(降低个体适合度)提高群体产量的观点还存在争论;即单播如何形成群体产量优势。另外,农业生产中通过多品种混播提高单一作物群体产量的做法并不常见;即混播是否具有群体产量提升空间。本研究选取六个不同年代的旱地春小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)为试验材料,包括三个老品种(和尚头、金包银和定西24)和三个新品种(陇春30、甘春27和NABUQ6)。我们在低水肥(雨养不灌溉,氮磷施加量分别为80和12 kg/ha)、中水肥(灌溉50 mm, 氮磷施加量分别为160和36 kg/ha)和高水肥(灌溉100mm,氮磷施加量分别为240和60 kg/ha)条件下,开展大田单播和混播试验。本研究试图验证三个科学问题:(1)个体适合度和群体产量的关系是否是资源依赖型?(2)不同品种混播的群体产量是否高于单播最优产量?(3)品种选育和邻体关系是否会改变新老品种的繁殖异速关系?主要研究结果如下: 1、水肥条件的提高显著增加了春小麦籽粒产量。低水肥条件下,老品种的籽粒产量高于新品种,且与地上生物量(P <0.01)、籽粒数(P <0.01)和株高(P <0.05)呈显著正相关。在高水肥条件下,新品种的籽粒产量显著高于老品种,籽粒产量与地上生物量和收获指数(P <0.05)呈显著正相关。在中水肥条件下,籽粒产量与地上生物量、收获指数等不相关(P >0.05),籽粒产量在新老品种间没有明显的分化。 、以混播条件下单株籽粒产量衡量个体适合度,而单播条件下籽粒产量衡量群体产量。在低水肥条件下,个体适合度和群体产量呈显著正相关(P <0.01),即优化个体适合度有利于群体产量。在高水肥条件下,个体适合度和群体产量呈显著负相关(P <0.05),即弱化个体适合度有利于群体产量。而在中水肥条件下,个体适合度和群体产量不相关(P >0.05)。可见,个体适合度和群体产量的关系在不同水肥条件下表现不一致。 3、以每个品种单播表现和混播中的比例计算该品种混播条件下的期望值,而混播条件下测量值为观测值。三种水肥条件下,新品种的籽粒产量和地上生物量的观测值显著低于期望值(P <0.05),即新品种在混播条件下付出地上生物量和籽粒产量的代价。在中高水肥条件下,老品种地上生物量和籽粒产量的观测值高于期望值(P <0.05),即老品种在混播条件下地上生物量和籽粒产量获得增益;而在低水肥条件下没有差异。 4、在三种水肥条件下,混播条件下籽粒产量的观测值均显著低于期望值(P <0.05),说明混播条件下老品种获得增益不及新品种付出的代价。混播条件下千粒重的观测值低于期望值(P <0.1),而多数情况下籽粒数量没有变化(中水肥条件下除外)。 5、老品种地上生物量和籽粒产量的变异系数小于新品种;可见在水肥资源波动环境中,老品种的稳定性高于新品种。混播条件下春小麦地上生物量和籽粒产量的变异系数高于老品种单播,而低于新品种单播;即混播条件下春小麦稳定性适中。 6、分析单播和混播条件下春小麦籽粒生物量(Reproductive biomass, R)和营养体生物量(Vegetative biomass, V)的异速生长关系。在单播条件下,和尚头、金包银、定西24、陇春30、甘春27和NABUQ6的R-V 异速指数(log R –log V 的斜率)分别为1.10、1.14、1.18、1.31、1.27和1.36。可见,品种选育增加了旱地春小麦的R-V 异速指数。在混播条件下,六个春小麦品种的R-V 异速指数在新老品种间没有分化,介于1.12 ~1.30之间,以和尚头最小(1.12),定西24和陇春30最大(1.30)。 7、单播和混播处理产生个体植株间不同的邻体关系。与单播相比,混播增加了两个老品种(金包银和定西24)的 R-V 异速指数(P <0.05),而对其它品种没有影响(P >0.05)。可见,随着个体大小的增加,混播处理中金包银和定西24将更多的干物质分配到籽粒中;且混播对新品种R-V 异速指数的影响明显小于老品种。 综上,旱地春小麦个体适合度与群体产量的关系是一种资源依赖性的。混播的群体产量不能超越单播最优,主要原因是老品种获得增益不及新品种付出的成本。品种选育进程提高了新品种的R-V 异速指数,而混播处理更有可能增加老品种的R-V 异速指数。由此可见,单播是提高密植作物产量一种有效方式,可以通过育种手段调控个体适合度实现不同环境中群体产量最优。 关键词:春小麦,个体适合度,单播,混播,群体产量,异速关系
Other AbstractThe relationship between plant-plant interaction and group yield improvement of crops is a core issue in ecological studies. Unlike natural plants adapted to the adverse environment by improving individual fitness, crop plants optimize group yield in the field with relatively more resources. Up to now, many researchers argue Donald’s view of improving group yield through weakening competitive ability (or reducing individual fitness). Alternatively, the mechanism of group yield improvement in monoculture is unclear. Besides, it is not a common way to increase crop yield through mixture. We are not sure whether there is possible for yield improvement by mixture. In this study, six dryland spring wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) which released in different ears were used, including three old cultivars [Heshangtou (HST), Jinbaoyin (JBY) and Dingxi24 (DX24)) and three new cultivars (Longchun30 (LC30), Ganchun27(GC27) and NABUQ6). The field experiment with monoculture and mixture were conducted at three resources levels (irrigation and fertilization): (i) low water and fertilization condition;(ii) middle water and fertilization condition;and (iii) high water and fertilization condition. These plots irrigated with 0-, 50- and 100-mm tap water in low, middle and high water and fertilization conditions, respectively. We fertilized before sowing with nitrogen (N) 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1, and phosphorus (P) of 12, 24 and 36 kg ha-1, respectively. This field experiment was carried out to answer three questions: (i) whether the relationship between individual fitness and population grain yield is field resource dependent;(ii) Is there possible the grain yield in mixture plot higher than the highest grain yield in monoculture;and (iii) whether the crop breeding and neighbor relationship can affect the reproductive allometric relationship of spring wheat? The main findings of this study as follows: 1. The grain yield of spring wheat is increased with more water and fertilizer applied. The grain yield of old cultivars was higher than that of new cultivars at low water and fertilization condition, which positively correlated with aboveground biomass (P <0.01), grain number per m2. (P <0.01), and plant height (P <0.05). At high water and fertilization condition, grain yield was higher in new cultivars than old cultivars;and positively correlated with aboveground biomass and harvest index (P <0.05). At middle water and fertilization condition, the grain yield varied among new and old cultivars. 2. The individual fitness was estimated by individual grain yield in mixture, while population yield is measured in monoculture. At low water and fertilization condition, there was positive relationship between population yield and individual fitness (P <0.01). In contrast, the negative relationship was found at high water and fertilization condition, as well as no relationship in middle water and fertilization condition. We can speculate here the population yield of wheat in low and high water and fertilization conditions can be improved by increasing and reducing individual fitness, respectively. However, there was no relationship between population yield and individual fitness. Thus, there is no consistent relationship of population yield and individual fitness at varied water and fertilization conditions. 3. The expected value in mixture was calculated by performance in monoculture the seedling ratio in mixture, while observed value in mixture is the measured value. At three water and fertilizer conditions, the observed values of grain yield and aboveground biomass of the new cultivars were significantly lower than expected values (P <0.05), indicating the new cultivars paid the cost in mixture. The observed values ​​of aboveground biomass and grain yield of the old cultivars were higher than expected values (P <0.05) at middle and high water and fertilization conditions (rather than low condition), showing that old cultivars gained in mixture. 4. At three water and fertilizer conditions, the observed value of grain yield in mixture was significantly lower than the expected value (P <0.05), indicating that the gains of old cultivars in mixture were less than the costs paid by new cultivars. The observed value of thousand-grain weight in mixture was lower than the expected value (P <0.1), while the number of grains does not change in most cases (except for middle water and fertilization condition). 5. The coefficient of variation(CV) of aboveground biomass and grain yield of old cultivars were smaller than that of new cultivars;it can be seen that the stability of old cultivars is higher than that of new cultivars in the fluctuating environment of water and fertilizer resources. The CV of the aboveground biomass and grain yield of spring wheat in mixture were higher than that of the old cultivars in monoculture, but lower than that of the new cultivars in monoculture;showing that the stability of spring wheat in mixture is moderate. 6. Analyze the allometric growth relationship between spring wheat grain biomass (R) and vegetative biomass (V) in monoculture and mixture. The R-V allometric index (the slope of log R –log V) of HST, JBY, DX24, LC30, GC27, and NABUQ6 in monoculture are 1.10, 1.14, 1.18, 1.31, 1.27, and 1.36, respectively. It can be seen that the selection of cultivars increased the R-V allometric index of dryland spring wheat. The R-V allometric index of the six spring wheat cultivars in mixture did not differentiate between the new and old cultivars, ranging from 1.12 to 1.30, with the lowest in HST (1.12), and the highest in DX24 and LC30 (1.30). 7. The neighbor relationship among individual plants is different in monoculture and mixture. Compared with monoculture, the R-V allometric index of two old cultivars was increased in mixture (JBY and DX24) (P <0.05), but had no effect on other cultivars (P >0.05). It can be seen that with the increasing of individual size, JBY and DX24 will distribute more dry matter into the grains in mixture;and the effect of mixture on the R-V allometric index of the new cultivars is significantly less than that of the old cultivars. In summary, the relationship between individual fitness of dryland spring wheat and group yield is field resource dependent. The group yield in mixture plot was lower than the highest group yield in monoculture. The main reason is that the gains of old cultivars are not as good as the cost of new cultivars. the selection process of cultivars improves the R-V allometric index of new cultivars, while mixture is more likely to increase the R-V allometric index of old cultivars. It can be seen that monoculture is an effective way to increase the yield of densely planted crops. It can adjust individual fitness through crop breeding to achieve the optimal group yield in different environments. Key words: spring wheat, individual fitness, monoculture, mixture, group yield, allometric relationship
Pages56
URL查看原文
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/459992
Collection生命科学学院
Affiliation生命科学学院
First Author AffilicationSchool of Life Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨晓伟. 旱地春小麦植株间相互作用对群体产量的影响[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2021.
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