兰州大学机构库 >生态学院
南极企鹅活动对土壤微生物群落结构、拮抗作用及酶活性的影响
Alternative TitleEFFECTS OF ANTARCTIC PENGUIN ACTIVITY ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE, ANTAGONISM AND ENZYME ACTIVITY
李珠珠
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor肖洒
2023-09-02
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword南极企鹅活动 Antarctic penguin activity 微生物群落结构 microbial community structure 微生物拮抗作用 microbial antagonism 土壤酶活性 soil enzyme activity
Abstract

南极洲在地理上与其他大陆隔绝,是地球上环境最恶劣的生物栖息地之一。企鹅作为连接南极地区海洋和陆地的主要纽带,对陆地和海洋系统之间营养物质的交换起到了重要的作用。目前由于全球变暖导致冰川融化,使部分企鹅栖息地扩张,导致企鹅活动对南极土壤微生物群落结构和土壤酶活性的影响更强烈。土壤微生物群落结构是全球环境变化的敏感指标,微生物在调控生态系统功能中发挥着重要作用。微生物之间存在相互作用,其中,微生物拮抗作用可以显著影响微生物群落的组装和稳定性,并可以用于调节不同环境中的微生物群落。土壤酶在土壤生态系统的养分循环和有机质调控过程中也起着关键作用,可以反映土壤微生物的代谢活性和对营养元素的需求,同时受到土壤理化性质和微生物群落组成的调控。目前许多研究关注了企鹅活动对土壤微生物群落结构的影响,但对于如何影响土壤微生物拮抗作用的研究非常匮乏,企鹅活动如何影响土壤酶活性的研究也很少。另外,对于企鹅活动影响微生物群落结构、微生物拮抗作用、土壤酶活性的关键影响因子仍然不太清晰,需要进一步的研究。

本研究选取了南极洲乔治王岛西南部阿德利岛作为研究样地,通过对比阿德利岛企鹅栖息地土壤样本与非企鹅栖息地的空地土壤样本,研究南极企鹅活动对土壤微生物群落结构和拮抗作用及土壤酶活性的影响及其机制。通过单因素方差分析、主坐标分析、非参数多元方差分析探究企鹅活动对土壤理化性质、微生物群落多样性和组成、微生物拮抗作用和酶活性的影响,通过斯皮尔曼相关分析、基于距离的冗余分析、Mantel test分析探究土壤理化性质、土壤微生物群落多样性、微生物群落组成、微生物拮抗作用、土壤酶活性的相关关系,我们的研究结果表明:

1. 南极企鹅活动显著增加了土壤电导率(28.6%)、全磷(198.9%)、有效磷(157.4%)和磷酸盐(37.8%)含量,却显著降低了土壤有机碳(19.3%)含量,而对土壤含水量、pH、总氮、铵态氮和硝态氮含量的影响不显著。

2. 南极企鹅活动显著增加了土壤细菌香农多样性(5.4%)、真菌丰富度(21.4%)和真菌香农多样性(42.4%),但对土壤细菌丰富度影响不显著。非参数多元方差分析的结果表明南极企鹅活动显著改变了微生物群落组成。斯皮尔曼相关分析可得,细菌香农多样性与土壤电导率、有效磷、磷酸盐、全磷含量呈正相关,与土壤有机碳含量呈负相关;真菌丰富度与土壤有效磷含量呈正相关,与土壤硝态氮呈负相关;真菌香农多样性与土壤电导率、全磷含量呈正相关。基于距离的冗余分析表明土壤全磷和电导率是影响细菌群落组成的关键理化因子,而土壤全磷和有机碳是影响土壤真菌群落组成的关键理化因子。

3. 南极企鹅活动显著降低了总链霉菌密度(97.2%)和拮抗链霉菌密度(85.1%),而对拮抗占比和抑菌圈大小影响不显著。微生物拮抗作用与土壤理化性质显著相关,具体而言,土壤链霉菌密度与土壤全氮、有机碳含量呈显著正相关,与土壤电导率、全磷、有效磷、磷酸盐含量呈显著负相关。土壤拮抗链霉菌密度与土壤含水量和有效磷含量呈显著负相关。同时Mantel test的结果表明微生物拮抗作用显著影响了细菌群落组成,但对真菌群落组成无显著影响。

4. 南极企鹅活动显著增加了土壤N-乙酰-β-D-葡萄糖苷酶(NAG)活性 (28.2%),同时显著降低了土壤β-葡萄糖苷酶(BG)活性(70.6%)。斯皮尔曼相关分析表明,NAG活性与土壤电导率和有效磷含量呈正相关,BG活性与土壤有机碳含量呈正相关,与土壤电导率、全磷、有效磷、磷酸盐含量呈负相关。同时Mantel test的结果表明细菌群落组成与土壤NAG活性之间有显著的相关关系,真菌群落组成与BG活性之间有显著的相关关系。

综上所述,我们的研究表明,南极企鹅活动可以显著增加土壤微生物多样性、改变土壤微生物群落组成、降低土壤微生物拮抗作用,这可能与企鹅活动影响土壤理化性质紧密相关,并且研究也表明土壤微生物拮抗作用可以显著影响土壤微生物群落组成。另外,南极企鹅活动也可以改变土壤理化性质和微生物群落结构,最终影响土壤酶活性。本研究进一步揭示了南极企鹅活动对土壤微生物群落结构和拮抗作用及土壤酶活性的影响及其机制,重点强调了土壤理化性质、微生物拮抗作用在企鹅活动对土壤微生物群落结构影响中起到的作用,同时强调土壤微生物群落组成在企鹅活动对土壤酶活性影响中起到的重要作用。这有助于我们更好的了解在全球气候变暖条件下南极企鹅活动对土壤微生物和酶活性的影响机制,为预测土壤微生物和酶活性对南极动物活动的响应、南极陆地生态系统中营养物质的循环及南极土壤质量和生态环境健康的评估提供了理论依据。

Other Abstract

Antarctica is geographically isolated from other continents and is one of the harshest habitats on Earth. As the main link between the ocean and land of the Antarctic region, penguins play an important role in the exchange of nutrients between land and marine systems. The current melting of glaciers due to global warming has led to the expansion of some penguin habitat, resulting in a stronger impact of penguin activity on the microbial community structure and soil enzyme activity in the Antarctic. Soil microbial community structure is a sensitive indicator of global environmental change, and microorganisms play an important role in regulating ecosystem functions. There are interactions between microorganisms, among which Microbial antagonism can significantly affect the assembly and stability of microbial communities, and can be used to regulate microbial communities in different environments. Soil enzymes play an important role in nutrient cycling and soil organic matter regulation in soil ecosystems, and reflecting the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms and their demand for nutrients. They are regulated by both soil physicochemical properties and microbial community composition. At present, many studies have focused on the impact of penguin activity on the soil microbial community structure, but there is a lack of study on how it affects the soil microbial antagonism, and few studies on how penguin activity affects soil enzyme activity. In addition, the key influencing factors of penguin activity affecting microbial community structure, microbial antagonism, and soil enzyme activity are still unclear and require further research.

In this study, Adelie Island, southwest of King George Island, Antarctica, was selected as the study site. By comparing soil samples from the penguin habitat with the those from open space in non-penguin habitat on Adelie Island, we investigated the effects of penguin activity on soil microbial community structure and antagonism and soil enzyme activity and their complex mechanisms in Antarctica. Exploring the effects of penguin activity on soil physicochemical properties, microbial community diversity and composition, microbial antagonism, and enzyme activity through one-way ANOVA, principal coordinate analysis, nonparametric multivariate. Analyzing the correlation between soil physicochemical properties, soil microbial community diversity and composition, microbial antagonism and soil enzyme activity through Spearman correlation analysis, distance-based redundancy analysis, and Mantel test analysis. Our results showed that:

1. Antarctic penguin activity significantly increased soil electrical conductivity (28.6%), total phosphorus (198.9%), available phosphorus (157.4%), and phosphate (37.8%) content, but significantly decreased soil organic carbon (19.3%) content, while the effects on soil water content, pH, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen content were not significant.

2. Antarctic penguin activity significantly increased soil bacterial Shannon diversity (5.4%), fungal richness (21.4%), and fungal Shannon diversity (42.4%), but had no significant effect on soil bacterial richness. The results of nonparametric multivariate analysis of variance showed that penguin activity significantly changed the microbial community composition. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that bacterial Shannon diversity was positively correlated with soil electrical conductivity, available phosphorus, phosphate, and total phosphorus content, and negatively correlated with soil organic carbon content. Fungal richness was positively correlated with soil available phosphorus content, and negatively correlated with soil nitrate nitrogen content. Fungal Shannon diversity was positively correlated with soil electrical conductivity and total phosphorus content. Distance-based redundancy analysis indicated that soil total phosphorus and electrical conductivity were critical physicochemical factors affecting bacterial community composition, while soil total phosphorus and organic carbon were critical physicochemical factors affecting fungal community composition.

3. Antarctic penguin activity significantly reduced the total Streptomyces density (97.2%) and antagonistic Streptomyces density (85.1%), but had no significant effect on the proportion of antagonistic and inhibitory zone size. Soil microbial antagonism is significantly correlated with soil physicochemical properties. The total Streptomyces density is significantly positively correlated with soil total nitrogen and organic carbon content, while it is significantly negatively correlated with soil electrical conductivity, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, and phosphate content. The antagonistic Streptomyces density is significantly negatively correlated with soil water content and available phosphorus content. Meanwhile, the results of Mantel test showed that microbial antagonism significantly affected the bacterial community composition, but had no significant impact on the fungal community composition.

4. Antarctic penguin activity significantly increased soil N-acetyl-β-D-glucosidase (NAG) activity (28.2%), while significantly reduced β-glucosidase (BG) activity (70.6%). Spearman correlation analysis showed that NAG activity was positively correlated with soil electrical conductivity and available phosphorus content, while BG activity was positively correlated with soil organic carbon content, and negatively correlated with soil electrical conductivity, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, and phosphate content. Meanwhile, the results of Mantel test showed a significant correlation between bacterial community composition and NAG activity, while there was a significant correlation between the fungal community composition and BG activity.

In summary, our study shows that Antarctic penguin activity can significantly increase soil microbial diversity, change soil microbial community composition and reduce soil microbial antagonism, which may be closely related to the impact of penguin activity on soil physicochemical properties, and research also shows that soil microbial antagonism can significantly affect soil microbial community composition. Furthermore, penguin activity can also change the soil physicochemical properties and microbial community structure, and ultimately affect soil enzyme activities.This study further reveals the effects of Antarctic penguin activity on soil microbial community structure, microbial antagonism and soil enzyme activity as well as their mechanisms, highlighting the role of soil physicochemical properties and microbial antagonism in the impact of penguin activity on soil microbial community structure and the important role of microbial community composition in the impact of penguin activity on soil enzyme activity. It contributes to a better understanding of the influence and mechanism of Antarctic penguin activity on soil microorganisms and enzyme activity under global warming condition, and provides a theoretical foundation for predicting the response of soil microorganisms and enzyme activity to Antarctic animal activities, the cycling of nutrients in Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems, and the assessment of Antarctic soil quality and ecological environment health.

Subject Area土壤生态学
MOST Discipline Catalogue理学 - 生态学
URL查看原文
Language中文
Other Code262010_220200929640
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/538007
Collection生态学院
Affiliation
兰州大学生态学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李珠珠. 南极企鹅活动对土壤微生物群落结构、拮抗作用及酶活性的影响[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2023.
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