兰州大学机构库 >草地农业科技学院
箭筈豌豆和油菜绿肥还田分解规律及对后茬冬小麦产量和土壤碳氮的影响
Alternative TitleEffects of Living Common Vetch and Rape Retention on Decomposition, Subsequent Wheat Yield and Soil C N
陶海宁
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor沈禹颖 ; 张燕
2023-05-27
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name农学硕士
Degree Discipline草学
Keyword覆盖还田 ground mulched 翻压还田 buried 绿肥分解规律 decomposition 土壤碳氮 soil carbon and nitrogen 后茬作物产量 subsequent crop yield
Abstract

绿肥还田是土壤培肥和提高后茬作物产量的重要手段,其自身的分解和养分释放影响着土壤养分的变化和后茬作物养分的吸收,而还田方式很大程度上影响其分解过程。饲草作物夏季填闲是提高黄土高原冬小麦种植系统水热地资源利用效率的方式之一,但在欠水年份,饲草生长因消耗土壤水分导致后茬冬小麦减产,而将饲草作物直接还田是稳定小麦产量和提高综合效益的有效措施之一。因此,本研究以箭筈豌豆(Vicia sativa)(V)和饲用油菜(Brassica napus)(R)为绿肥作物,在地表覆盖(G)和翻压(B)两种方式还田下,分析箭筈豌豆和油菜的分解动态、后茬冬小麦(Trticum aestivums)产量及土壤碳氮变化,旨在揭示绿肥不同还田方式下的分解规律及对后茬作物产量和土壤碳氮含量的影响,以期为半干旱区冬小麦生产系统夏闲期绿肥还田利用提供理论指导。主要研究结果如下:

(1)整个冬小麦生长期,箭筈豌豆和油菜还田的累积分解率为65.2%和71.9%,在翻压还田下分别比其覆盖还田下高51.1%和36.8%(P<0.05);箭筈豌豆和油菜还田的分解速率为0.08 g·d-1和0.09 g·d-1,翻压还田下分别比其覆盖还田下高1.6倍和1.25倍(P<0.05)。覆盖还田下,箭筈豌豆植株的碳(C)降解率最高为16.5%,C/N比最低,为13.96,油菜氮(N)降解率和C/N比最高,分别为35.5%和20.55。

(2)箭筈豌豆还田下后茬冬小麦灌浆期叶面积指数(LAI)、归一化植被指数(NDVI)高于冬小麦连作(CW),箭筈豌豆覆盖还田下LAI(3.81)、NDVI值(0.81)最大。箭筈豌豆覆盖(VG)和箭筈豌豆翻压(VB)处理后茬冬小麦籽粒产量分别为4.85和4.60 t·hm-2,比CW提高14.8%和8.1%(P>0.05),收获指数(HI)分别为0.35和0.37;油菜翻压还田后茬冬小麦LAI、NDVI均低于CW,油菜覆盖(RG)和油菜翻压(RB)处理后茬冬小麦籽粒产量分别为3.96和3.89 t·hm-2,HI均为0.36,与CW产量无显著差异(P>0.05)。

(3)相比CW处理,VG、VB、RG和RB处理后茬冬小麦土壤0-25 cm含水量分别增加了2.0%、5.0%、7.7%和4.4%,比休闲(F)处理降低了16.8%、14.3%、12.1%和14.8%。RB处理土壤有机碳(SOC)、全氮(TN)含量最高,分别为9.72 g·kg-1、1.06 g·kg-1,比F和CW分别增加22.1%、17.4%和9.0%、11.2%。绿肥还田显著增加了土壤易氧化有机碳(EOC)、硝态氮(NO3--N)和微生物量碳氮(MBC和MBN)含量(P<0.05),其中VG处理下土壤NO3--N和MBC、MBN含量最高,相比CW处理,分别提高39.7%和10.8%、2.8%;RG处理下土壤EOC含量最高,分别比F和CW增加75.8%和9.7%。绿肥还田显著增加了土壤碳氮转化酶活性(P<0.05),VG处理乙酰氨基葡萄糖苷酶(NAG)活性最高,为3.63 nmol·g-1·h-1,较其他还田处理高9.6%~14.2%;油菜还田处理下β-葡萄糖苷酶(βG)、纤维二糖水解酶(CBH)、β-木糖苷酶(βX)和亮氨酸氨基肽酶(LAP)活性较箭筈豌豆还田处理高,RG处理下βG、CBH、βX和LAP酶活性分别为37.85、9.02、18.41和390.40 nmol·g-1·h-1,RB处理下βG、CBH、βX和LAP酶活性分别为38.74、9.04、16.54和358.47 nmol·g-1·h-1。MBC和土壤含水量是影响碳氮转化酶活性的主要因子(P<0.001)。

综上,在陇东黄土高原,箭筈豌豆和油菜绿肥还田不影响后茬冬小麦籽粒产量,有利于土壤碳氮含量的提高,其中翻压还田方式效果更优,结果对于促进区域内农田耕地质量提升、粮食生产高产优质具有理论和实践指导意义。

Other Abstract

Green manure is an important material to improve the fertility of the soil and increase the yield of subsequent crops. The decomposition and nutrient release of organic matter affect the nutrient absorption of subsequent crops and the changes of soil nutrients, and the way of returning to the field greatly affects the decomposition of green manure. Planting forage crops in the summer fallow period is one of the ways to improve the utilization of water and heat resources in the winter wheat planting system of the Loess Plateau. However, planting forage crops in dry years leads to the reduction of subsequent winter wheat production due to the consumption of soil water, which is not conducive to the sustainable development of the system. Returning forage crops directly to the field is one of the effective measures to improve the climate resilience and comprehensive benefits of the rotation system. Therefore, this study was conducted to study the decomposition dynamics of common vetch (Vicia sativa) and rape (Brassica napus) under mulching (G) and overturning (B) into the field by using the nylon mesh bag method and to determine the yield of subsequent winter wheat (Trticum aestivums) and soil carbon and nitrogen nutrients. It provides a theoretical guidance for the utilization of green manure in the summer fallow period of winter wheat production system in semi-arid areas. The main results are as follows:

(1) During the whole growth period of winter wheat, the cumulative decomposition rates of common vetch and rape were 65.2% and 71.9%, respectively, which were 51.1% and 36.8% higher than those under ground mulching (P<0.05). The decomposition rates of common vetch and rape were 0.08 g·d-1 and 0.09 g·d-1, respectively, which were 1.6 and 1.25 times higher than those under ground mulching (P<0.05). Under ground mulching, the highest carbon (C) degradation rate of common vetch was 16.5%, and the lowest C/N ratio was 13.96; the highest nitrogen (N) degradation rate and C/N ratio of rape were 35.5% and 20.55, respectively.

(2) The leaf area index (LAI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of winter wheat at filling stage under common vetch returning were higher than those of continuous winter wheat cropping (CW). The LAI and NDVI values under common vetch ground mulching treatment were the largest, with an average of 3.81 and 0.81, respectively. The grain yield of winter wheat under common vetch ground mulched (VG) and common vetch buried (VB) treatment were 4.85 t·hm-2 and 4.60 t·hm-2, respectively, which was 14.8% and 8.1% higher than that of CW (P>0.05), and the harvest index (HI) were 0.35 and 0.37, respectively. The LAI and NDVI of winter wheat after rape ground mulched were lower than those of CW. The grain yield of winter wheat after rape ground mulched (RG) and rape buried (RB) were 3.96 and 3.89 t·hm-2, respectively, and both HI was 0.36, which was not significantly different from CW yield (P>0.05).

(3) Compared with CW, the 0-25 cm soil water content under VG, VB, RG and RB treatments increased by 2.0%, 5.0%, 7.7% and 4.4%, respectively, and decreased by 16.8%, 14.3%, 12.1% and 14.8% compared with fallow (F) treatment. The contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) under RB treatment were the highest, which were 9.72 g·kg-1 and 1.06 g·kg-1, respectively, which were 22.1%, 17.4% and 9.0% and 11.2% higher than those under F and CW treatments, respectively. Returning green manure significantly increased the contents of soil readily oxidized organic carbon (EOC), nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen (MBC and MBN) (P<0.05). The contents of soil NO3--N, MBC and MBN under VG treatment were the highest, which were 39.7%, 10.8% and 2.8% higher than those under CW treatment, respectively. The soil EOC content under RG treatment was the highest, which were 75.8% and 9.7% higher than that of F and CW, respectively. Returning green manure significantly increased soil carbon and nitrogen invertase (P<0.05). The activity of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) in VG treatment was the highest, which was 3.63 nmol·g−1·h−1, which was 9.6%~14.2% higher than that in other treatments. The activities of β-1,4-glucosidase (βG), Cellobiohydrolase (CBH), β-Xylosidase (βX) and Leucineaminopeptidase (LAP) in returning rape treatments were higher than those in returning common vetch treatments. The activities of βG, CBH, βX and LAP were 37.85, 9.02, 18.41 and 390.40 nmol·g−1·h−1 under RG treatment, and 38.74, 9.04, 16.54 and 358.47 nmol·g−1·h−1 under RB treatment, respectively. MBC and soil water content were the main factors affecting the activity of carbon and nitrogen invertase (P<0.001).

In summary, returning common vetch and rape in the Longdong Loess Plateau does not affect the grain yield of subsequent winter wheat, and burying green manure is more conducive to the improvement of soil carbon and nitrogen content. The results have theoretical and practical guiding significance for promoting the quality of regional farmland and high yield and quality of grain production.

Subject Area饲草生产,草田轮作
MOST Discipline Catalogue农学 - 草学
URL查看原文
Language中文
Other Code262010_220200900460
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/539195
Collection草地农业科技学院
Affiliation
兰州大学草地农业科技学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陶海宁. 箭筈豌豆和油菜绿肥还田分解规律及对后茬冬小麦产量和土壤碳氮的影响[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2023.
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