兰州大学机构库 >资源环境学院
巴丹吉林沙漠人类活动遗存年代生业模式及环境背景研究
Alternative TitleStudy on the chronology, livelihood patterns and environmental background of human activity relics in the Badain Jaran Desert
王奕心
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor管清玉
2023-05-30
Degree Grantor兰州大学
Place of Conferral兰州
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline地球系统科学
Keyword文化遗存 Culture relics 年代学 Chronology 生业模式 Livelihood patterns 环境背景 Environmental background 巴丹吉林沙漠 Badain Jaran Desert
Abstract

       巴丹吉林沙漠是世界上沙丘高度最大、我国仅次于塔克拉玛干沙漠的第二大沙漠,其腹地及东南部高大沙丘之间的低地分布有 100 多个总溶解固体(TDS)各异(包括淡、微咸、咸、盐、卤 5 个类型)的内陆湖泊。近年考察发现,巴丹吉林沙漠虽是人迹罕至、考古研究相对薄弱的地方,但可能是新石器至青铜时代文化遗存有重要发现、研究人类活动与环境变迁关系的理想地区之一。古人何时、从何地进入巴丹吉林沙漠并散居下来,其族群赖以生存的经济形态是农业、半农半牧还是畜牧业,至今没有获得科学的解答。同时,巴丹吉林沙漠东南缘的雅布赖山是亚洲岩画分布密度最大的地方,岩画对研究生业模式有重要价值,正确判定岩画的创作年代和分期也是一个关键的科学问题。

     本文以巴丹吉林沙漠腹地人类活动遗存及东南缘雅布赖山岩画为研究对象,基于系列样品年代学测定和岩画断代,确定了人群从域外进入巴丹吉林沙漠的最初时间。根据沙漠腹地文化遗存的分布格局和器物类型,分析了新石器至青铜时代巴丹吉林沙漠人类活动的生业模式、生存策略、资源利用及其环境适应性,探讨了研究区早期游牧文化的形成及其原因。主要研究结果和结论如下:

     (1)通过对巴丹吉林沙漠腹地及其东南缘雅布赖山人类活动遗存的区域系统调查,发现巴丹吉林沙漠腹地至少有 135 处史前人类活动遗存。空间分析表明,研究区文化遗存具有聚集性特征,主要受控于湖泊群的分布格局。对典型遗址中的器物类型进行收集、整理和分析,并结合 14C 样品的年代测定,得出人群最早进入巴丹吉林沙漠大致在新石器时代中晚期。沙漠腹地未发现先秦、汉唐人类活动遗存,结合考古遗存 14C 测年数据累积频率,认为巴丹吉林沙漠先秦至汉唐存在文化缺失现象,人群从西夏开始复又进入沙漠从事相关生产活动。
    (2)雅布赖山手形岩绘画遗址均具有靠近季节性河流或水源地的环境选择特征。其中,陶仁高勒洞窟保存的动物骨骼测年结果为5657⁓5586 cal yr BP。结合雅布赖山洞窟手形岩画与巴丹吉林沙漠史前人类活动遗存的共存或空间组合关系,初步推断研究区手形岩绘画属于新石器时代中晚期的文化遗存。
    (3)巴丹吉林沙漠腹地细石器多且分布广泛,陶器多小型带耳平底器(少见大型彩陶器)的文化(适应)趋同现象,以及文化遗存环湖岸呈带状“逐水草而居”等,推断人群具有频繁迁徙的生业特性,应为游牧模式。根据采集的标型器及其年代,提出一种与马家窑文化至四坝文化相当的原生“沙漠草湖游牧”地域类型。根据发现的文化遗存年代范围,以及与毗邻地区考古学文化的对比,基本可以确定在新石器时代晚期,巴丹吉林沙漠已经出现游牧生业模式。当时,人群的活动地域超出了现今牧民定居点分布范围,可称为巴丹吉林沙漠的“黄金时代”。
    (4)雅布赖山岩刻画可分为 6 种类型,相较东部草原地带的岩画,具有显著的沙漠特点。运用明度模式测得了 64 幅岩画的明度值,建立了明度-年代经验模型。根据雅布赖山支脉曼德拉山 2004 年岩刻和已知年代的西夏文岩刻明度值,得到了其他未知岩画的大致年代。结果表明,从三国两晋南北朝时期(220⁓280 AD,281⁓419 AD,420~580 AD),历经隋(581⁓617 AD)、唐(618⁓906 AD)、西夏(1038~1227 AD)、元(1279⁓1367 AD)直到明清之际(1368⁓1643 AD, 1644⁓1911 AD)一直有古人在此地作画。岩画年代频数最多的集中在 700 AD 前后,在 1500 AD前后的明清之际频数最低。曼德拉山岩画的频数多少与中国历史上的暖期和冷期具有关联性,说明历史时期气候变化尤其是温度波动为影响岩画数量的因素之一。
     (5)利用挖掘地层探槽剖面或遗址周边自然出露的地层剖面,得出近万年来巴丹吉林沙漠经历了全新世初的成炭期、中期的高湖面和泛湖期、晚全新世湖泊退缩期 3 个阶段,但一直为干旱气候环境。影响巴丹吉林沙漠古人分布和迁徙的自然地理因素是湖泊群,全新世地下水循环响应气候变化导致的湖泊环境演变是文化兴衰的地理环境背景。生态系统的植物资源特性和沙漠草湖环境,对史前人群生业模式的选择起着关键或决定性作用。湖泊沉积物的孢粉分析结果表明,巴丹吉林沙漠全新世荒漠生态系统格局或生物气候带没有发生根本变化,是研究区新石器时代至青铜时代游牧化过程的直接原因。晚全新世湖泊群水位退缩、水质逐渐咸化,可能是沙漠腹地缺失先秦、汉唐文化遗存的环境背景因素。随着生产技术、特别是骑乘、掘井等技术的进步,人群从西夏开始复又进入沙漠从事相关生产活动。质言之,巴丹吉林沙漠全新世湖泊群虽有较大变化,但以芨芨草、芦苇草甸等为主的非地带性沙漠草湖和地带性荒漠草场没有改变,未影响生业模
式发生转型。

       本文获得了巴丹吉林沙漠及其毗邻地区游牧业形成和文明早期发展阶段的地理学、考古学证据,为巴丹吉林沙漠申报世界自然和文化遗产提供了新的科学资料。这些研究工作有助于深入理解中国西北干旱区史前游牧业发展过程及其影响,对探讨史前人群生存策略、社会发展和环境变化之间的相互作用关系有重要的学术价值。

Other Abstract

The Badain Jaran Desert is the second largest desert in China after the Taklimakan Desert with the highest sand dune height in the world. There are more than 100 inland lakes with different TDS (it includes five types: light, brackish, salty, salt and bittern) in its hinterland and the lowland between the high sand dunes in the southeast. In recent years, the Badain Jaran Desert has been found to be a place with few people and 
relatively weak archaeological research, but it may be one of the ideal areas for important discoveries of Neolithic to Bronze Age cultural relics and the study of the relationship between human activities and environmental changes. When and where the ancients entered the Badain Jaran Desert and settled down, the economic form on which the ethnic groups depended for survival was agriculture, semi-agricultural and semipastoral or animal husbandry has not been scientifically answered. At the same time, the Yabulai Mountain in the southeastern margin of the Badain Jaran Desert is the place with the highest distribution density of rock art in Asia. Rock art are of great value for research of livelihood patterns. Correctly determining the creation age and staging of rock art is also a key scientific issue.

In this thesis, the remains of human activities in the hinterland of the Badain Jaran Desert and the rock paintings of the Yabulai Mountains in the southeastern margin are taken as the research objects. Based on the chronological determination of a series of samples and the dating of rock paintings, the initial time of the population entering the Badain Jaran Desert from outside the region are determined. According to the distribution pattern and types of cultural relics in the hinterland of the desert, the subsistence mode, survival strategy, resource utilization and environmental adaptability 
of human activities in this area from Neolithic to Bronze Age were analyzed, and the formation and causes of early nomadic culture in the study area were discussed. The main results and conclusions are as follows:

(1) Based on the regional systematic investigation of human activities in the hinterland of the Badain Jaran Desert and the Yabulai Mountains in the southeastern margin of the Badain Jaran Desert, it is found that there are 135 prehistoric human 
activity relics in the hinterland of the Badain Jaran Desert. Spatial analysis shows that the cultural relics in the study area have aggregation characteristics, which are mainly 
controlled by the distribution pattern of lake groups. The types of artifacts in typical sites were collected, sorted and analyzed, and combined with the dating of 14C samples, it was concluded that the earliest population entered the Badain Jaran Desert in the middle and late Neolithic Age. No relics of human activities in the pre-Qin, Han and Tang dynasties were found in the hinterland of the desert. Combined with the 
cumulative frequency of 14C dating data of cultural relics, it is believed that there is a lack of culture in the Badain Jaran Desert from the pre-Qin to the Han and Tang dynasties, and the population has entered the desert again from the Western Xia Dynasty to engage in related production activities.
(2) The hand stencil rock art all have geomorphic features close to seasonal rivers or water sources in the Yabulai Mountain. The dating results of preserved animal bone was 5657⁓5586 cal yr BP in Taorengaole rock shelter. According to the coexistence relationship between Yabulai rock shelter and the nearby prehistoric human activity relics, or the spatial composing relations, it is preliminarily inferred that the hand stencil rock art in the study area belong to the middle and late Neolithic Age cultural relics.
(3) There are many and widely distributed microliths in the hinterland of the Badain Jaran Desert. The cultural (adaptation) convergence of small eared flatware (rare large-scale painted pottery) and the cultural relics around the lake shore are banded ‘living by water and grass’. It is inferred that the population has the characteristics of frequent migration and should be nomadic. According to the collected type and its age, a kind of original ‘desert grass lake nomadic’ regional type equivalent to Majiayao culture to Siba culture is proposed. According to the age range of the cultural relics 
found and the comparison with the archaeological culture of the adjacent areas, it can be basically determined that in the late Neolithic Age, the nomadic mode has appeared 
in the Badain Jaran Desert. At that time, the activity area of the human is beyond the current distribution range of herdsmen settlements, which can be called the ‘golden age’ of the Badain Jaran Desert.
(4) The engraved rock art of the Yabulai Mountain can be divided into six types. Compared with the rock paintings in the eastern grassland area, it has significant desert characteristics. The lightness model was used to measure the value of 64 rock art, the lightness-age empirical model is proposed. According to the 2004 engraved rock art of the Mandela Mountains of the Yabulai Mountains and the lightness values of the Western Xia inscriptions of the known ages, the approximate ages of other unknown rock art are obtained. The results suggest, during the period of the Three Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties (220~280 AD, 281~419 AD, 420~580 AD), through 
the Sui Dynasty (581~617 AD), Tang Dynasty (618~906 AD), Wertern Xia Dynasty (1038~1227 AD), Yuan Dynasty (1279~1367 AD), until the Ming and Qing Dynasties 
(1368~1643 AD, 1644~1911 AD), there were ancient people painting in Mandela Mountain. The highest frequency of rock art is around 700 AD, and the lowest frequency is around 1500 AD during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The frequency of 
rock art in Mandela Mountain is related to the warm and cold periods in Chinese history, indicating that climate change, especially temperature fluctuation, is one of the factors 
affecting the number of rock art.
(5) By using the excavated strata trench profile or the naturally outcropped strata profile around the site, it is concluded that the Badain Jaran Desert has experienced three stages in the past ten thousand years: the early Holocene carbon formation stage, the middle stage of high lake level and flooding stage, and the late Holocene lake retreat stage, but it has been arid climate. Lake groups are the natural geographical factors that 
affect the distribution and migration of ancient people in the Badain Jaran Desert. The evolution of lake environment caused by the Holocene groundwater cycle in response to climate change is the geographical environment background of cultural vicissitude. The resource characteristics of the ecosystem and dersert grass environment play important role in the choice of prehistoric people’s livelihood patterns. The results of pollen analysis of lake sediments show that the Holocene desert ecosystem pattern or bioclimatic zone in the Badain Jaran Desert has not undergone fundamental changes, 
which is the direct cause of the nomadic process from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age in the study area. The high lake level and the pan lake period are the water resources 
guarantee conditions for the origin of early nomadic. The retreat of water level and gradual salinization of water quality in the late Holocene lakes may be the environmental background factors for the lack of pre-Qin, Han and Tang cultural relics in the desert hinterland. With the development of production technology, especially the technology of ride and dug well, the people began to enter the desert again from the 
Western Xia Dynasty to engage in related production activities. In other words, although the Holocene lake groups in the Badain Jaran Desert has changed greatly, However, the non-zonal desert grassland lakes and zonal desert grasslands dominated by Achnatherum splendens and reed meadows have not changed, which has not affected the transformation of livelihood patterns.

This thesis provides geographical and archaeological evidence for the formation of nomadic pastoralism and the early development of civilization in the Badain Jaran Desert and its adjacent areas. These studies are helpful to understand the development process and influence of prehistoric pastoralism in the arid area of Northwest China, provide new evidence for understanding the complex environmental background of 
early society, and have important academic value for exploring the interaction between prehistoric population survival strategies, social development and environmental changes.

Subject Area环境考古
MOST Discipline Catalogue理学 - 地理学 - 自然地理学
URL查看原文
Language中文
Other Code262010_120170905220
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttps://ir.lzu.edu.cn/handle/262010/539307
Collection资源环境学院
Affiliation
兰州大学资源环境学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王奕心. 巴丹吉林沙漠人类活动遗存年代生业模式及环境背景研究[D]. 兰州. 兰州大学,2023.
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